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Property of OISEUT Librery 
Pleese return to 252 Bloor St. West 
Attention: Kathy Imrie 



Donated to the 
Ontrlo Historlcal Textbook 
Col lection 
by 
Ottaa Teachers College 
4arch » 1966 



Vith th Comllimnts o 

THE COPP, CLAIK CO., Limited. 

1Vlistry c| Educatlan, Ontario 
/-Listorical Col!ection 



[inlstry cI.Edcatiaa, Ontar:o 
Iffistorical Col!ection 



PUBLIC SCHOOL 

DOMESTIC 

SCIENCE 

MRS. J. HOODLESS, 
pR'SlD'T SCI'IOOL OF OIF..STIC SCEC' HAMILTON. 

This Book may be used as a Text-Book in any High or Public School, if so ordered by 
a resolution o[ the Trustees. 

TORONTO : 
TIIE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED, 
898. 



Entered according to Act of the Parliment of Canada, in the year one thousand eight 
hundrel and ninety-eight, by TH CouP, CLtK CoP-r, LmtEv, Toronto, 
Ontario, in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture. 



" I bave corne to the conclusion that more than hall the disease 
which embitters the latter hall of lire is due fo avoidable errors in 
diet, and that more mischief in the form of actual disease of 
hnpaired vigour, and of shortened lie accrues to civilied man in 
Eng]and and throughout Central urope from erroneous habits of 
eating than from the habitual use of alcoholic drink, considerable 
as I know that evfl fo be."--Sir Henry Thompsn. 

"Knowledge which subserves self-preservation by preventing 
loss of health is of primary importance. We do not contend that 
possession of such knowledge would by any means wholly remedy 
the evil. But we do contend that the right knowledge impressed 
in the right way would effect much ; and we further contend that 
as the laws of health must be recognized before they can be fully 
conformed to, the imparting of such knowledge must precede a 
more rational living."--Herbert Spencer. 

"Cooking means the knowledge of Medea and Crce, and of 
Calypso and Helen, and of Rebekah, and of the Queen of Sheba. 
It means the knowledge of ail fruits, and herbs, and balms, and 
spices, and of all that is healing and sweet in fields and groves, 
and savory in meats; if means carefulness, and inventiveness, 
and watchfulness, and wfllingness, and readiness of appliance ; it 
means much tasting and no wasting ; it means English thorough- 
ness, and French art, and Arabian hospitality ; it means, in fine, 
that you are to be peffect and always'ladies'--'loaf-givers.' "-- 
.Ruskin. 

lstry c| Educal|on, Ontario 
fs; .... :^ Collection 



PREFACE. 

N eminent authority * says : " Up to the age of sixteen 
even a lucid statement of principles is received by all 
but a few pupils as dogma. They do ,ot and cammt in any 
adequate sense realize the reasoning l,rocess by which scientific 
conclusions are reached. They are taught not only facts but 
classifications and laws, and causes in relation te» their effect. 
These are re»t, in the majority of cases, elaboratcd by the 
pupil. The teacbing of them accordingly dgenerates into a 
statement of facts, and the learning of them into an act of 
memory." 
To obviate this condition, or to at least neutralize ifs 
effects somewhat, is one of the principal reasons f,»r intro- 
ducing Domestic Science into the Public School curriculum ;  
science vhich relates so closely to the daily liïe tl,at it cannot 
be lcft fo an act of memory ; where cause and effect are so 
palpable that the pupil may reoeily arrive at an individual 
conclusion. 
The aim of this text-book is to assist the pupil in acquiring 
a knowledge of the fundamental principles of correct living, to 
co-ordinate the regular school studies so as to ,mke a practical 
use of knowledge already acquired. Arithmetic plays an 

"8. S. Laurie, A.M., LL.D., Prof. of the Institutes and tlistory of Education, 
Edinburgh University. 



Vi PREFACE. 

important part in the arranging of veights and measures, in 
the study of the analysis and relative value of various kinds 
of food, in estimating the cost of manufactured products in 
proportion to their market value, in the purehase of food 
material, etc. ttistory and geography are closely allied to the 
study of the diet ad eustoms of the differen countries, with 
their variety of climate and products. Physiology and tem- 
perance lrinciples permeate the vhole course of study. In 
addition to these are the direct lessons, provided by the 
practice work, in neatness, 10romptne and cleanliness. It 
vill therefore be necessary to have a vide general knowledge 
belote entering upon a course in Iomestic Seienee. 
Owing to the limited time allowed for this course in the 
PuLlic Schools, if will be impossi}»le to teazh more than a few 
of the firs principles governing eaeh department of the work, 
-riz., a knowledge of the constituent parts of the human body ; 
the classification of food ad the relation of eaeh class to the 
susten,nee ad repair of the l»««ly ; simple reeipes illustrating 
the most -holesome and eeoomieal methods «:f preparing the 
various kinds of food ; the science of nutrition, eeonomy and 
hygiene; general hints on household management, laund T 
work, and eare of the sick. 
To enter more fully into the chemistry of food, baeteriology, 
etc, would tend to cause confusion in the mind of the aver- 
age school girl, and possibly create a dista.te for knowledge 
containing so mueh ahstract matter. 
This book is n«t a teacher's manual, nor is if intended to 
take the place of the teacher in any way. The normal training 
prescribed for teaehers will ena»le them to supplement the 
information contained herein, }»y a mueh more general and com- 
prehensive treatment of the various questions, than would be 
possible or judicious in a primary text-book. I has been found 
ditficult for pupils to copy the recipes given with each lesson, 



PREFACE. vil 

or fo write out the instructions carefully without infringing 
upon the tilne which should be devoted to practice work. 
order to meet this diflïculty, also to enable the pupil to work 
at home under the saine rules which govern the class work, 
simple recipes are given, beginning with a class requiring a 
knowledge of heat and its effect, going on to thoso requiring 
hand dexterity, belote attempting the more difficult subjects. 
After the pupils have acquired a knowle,lge of the "why and 
wheref,»re" of the different processes required in cooking, they 
will bave little difficulty in following the more elaborate 
recipes given in the nulnberless cook-books pr,»vided for house- 
hold use. Once the art--and it Ls a fine art--of cookery is 
mastered, it becomes hot only a pleasant occupation but 
provides excellent mental exercise, thereby preventing 
reaction which frequently follows school life. 

The tables given are to be used for reference, and hot tobe 
memorized by the pupil. 

The writer is greatly indebted to Prof. Atwater for his 
kindly interest and assistance in providing much valuable 
information, which in some instauces is given verbatim ; also 
to Dr. Gilman Thompson for Iermission to give extracts 
from his valuable book, "Practical Dietetics"; to 1)rof. 
Kinne, Columbia University (Domestic Science I)el0t.), for 
review and suggestions ; to Miss Y'atson, Principal Halnilton 
School of Domestic Science, for practical hints and schedule 
for school work. The ]3,»ston Cook Book (with zN%rmal 
Instruction), by ][rs. M. J. Lincoln ; and the Chemistry of 
Cooking and Cleaning, by Ellen II. Richards (Prof. of 
Sanitary Science, Boston Institute of Technology), and 
Miss Talbot, are recommended to students who desire further 

Where time is aiiowed, much beneflt may be derived from writing notes, as a 
study in composition, speiling, etc. 



VIII PREFACE. 

information on prctical household matters. The publications 
of the U S. Experiment Stations, 1,y Pr«,f. Atwater and other 
eminent chemists, contin much vMuble information. 
To the school-girls, and future housekeepers of Ontario, thi 
book is respectfully dedicated. 
ADELAIDE HOODLESS. 

« EAsTCOU RT," 
][:milton, .lune, 1898. 



SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHER. 

Owing to the limitations of a text-book, it will be necessary for 
the teacher to enter very carefully into all the details of the v«trious 
questions; to explain the underlying principles so thor«»ughly 
that " the why and the wherefore" of every action in the prepar- 
ation of food will be clearly understood. She should endeav,,r to 
impress upon the pupfls thc value of thoroughly understanding the 
relation of food t,» the body. In practice lessons frequent refere»ce 
should be made to the analysis «,f the various fof,ds, as given in the 
tables and charts. 
The first practice lesson should be givcn on the making and care 
of a tire, regulating dampers, cleaning store, etc. The pupils 
should then be taught the naine and place of all the utensfls. 
Special attention should be given to the e.xp!anation of weights and 
measures ; the table of abbreviations should be memorized. Ar- 
range the class work so that each pupil may in alternation share the 
duties of both kitchen work and cooki,g. 
Personal cleanliness must be insisteà upon. Special attention 
should be given to the hands a-'d halls. The hair should be care- 
fully pinned back or confined in some way, and covcred by a cap. 
A large clcan apron and a holder should be worn whfle af work. 
Never al]ow the pupils to use a handkerchief or their aprons in 
place of a holàer. Untidy habits must not be allowed in the class- 
room. Set an example of perfect order and ncatncss, and insist 
upon pupils following that example. Teach thê pupils that cooking 
may be done without soiling either hands or clothes. The pupfls 
should do all the work of the clss-room, except scrubbing the 
ix 



X SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS. 
floor. Everything must be left in perfeet order at the close of eaeh 
le88on. 
Frequent reriews are absolutely neeessary. Urge the pupils go 
thiak f,,r themselves, and hot go rely upon the text-book. Where 
i,upils are baekward, or have hot had previous praetiee in kitehen 
work, give speeial attention to their manner of holding a knife or 
spoon in preparing articles f,r use, and in beating or stirring 
mixtures. Encourage deftness and light llandling of kitehcn ware. 
hmist upt,n promptness and keeping within the rime limit, b,,th in 
preparing the food and in the eooking. 
Owing to tire varicty of climate and markets, it would be impos- 
sible go arrange the lessons in the text-book in regular order. A 
few sample menus are given af the back of the book, but ench 
teaeher must be governed by circumstances in arranging the lessons 
for her elass. For instance, reeipes without eggs should be given 
in mid-winter, when eggs are dr. Fruits ard vegetbles must be 
given in season. 
The recipes given in the text-book are suitable for class work ; in 
some cases it nmy be necessary to divide them, as the quantities 
given are intended f,,r home i,ractice. The teacher should consider 
herself at liberty to substitute any recipe which she may consider 
valuable. The digestibility of food, the effect of stimulants-- 
especially of tea and coffee, the value of fresh air, etc., should be 
carefully impressed upon the pui,il. 
The teacher must keep the object of this instruction constantly 
beforc her: (1) to co-ordinate other school studies, such as arith- 
metic, history, geography, physiology ard temperance; (2) to 
develop the mental in conjunction with the manual powers of the 
children ; (3) to enable pupils to understand the reason for doing 
certain things in a certain way ; in other words, to work with an 



SUGGESTI[)NS TO TEACIIERS. X 

intelligent conception «,f the value, both physically and hygienically, 
of knowing how the daily duties should be performed. 
In order that material may not be needlessly destroyed, each 
class of food should be introduced by an experimental lesson. For 
instance, before giving a lesson in the preparation «,f starches, each 
pupil should be given an opportunity to learn how t«» mix and stir 
the mixture over the tire, so as to prevent it from burning or 
becoming lumpy ; thia may be donc by using water and common 
laundry starch, or flour. The saine test applies to sauces, etc. A 
few cheap apples and potatoes may be used in learning to pare 
these articles. The effect «,f cold and hot water on albumen and 
tissues may be illustrated by the cheaper pieces of meat. 
Although the nmre scientific studies are gr.uped together, if 
does not follow that they are to be studied in the ,,rder given. 
The teacher must arrange her lessons--from the beginning--so as 
to include a certain amount «,f the theory with the practice work. 
Frequent reference should be ruade during practice lessons t,» the 
various chapters bearing more directly upon the science of cooking, 
so as to interest the pupil in the theoretical study of the food 
question. 
The teacher should insist upon the pupils taking careful notes 
while she is demonstrating a lesson, so that they may not Le 
entirely dependent upon the text-book, which from its limitations 
must simply serve as the key-note for further study. 
Special attention must be given to the chapter on "Digestion," 
page 58, in the Public School Physiology. This chapter should be 
studied--especially pages 71-75--in conjunction with "Food 
Cla.ssifications" (Chap. 2) ; also in dealing with the digestibility of 
starches, etc. 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS--(Atwater). 
-hutritive Ingredients, lefuse, and Fuel Value. 
Nutrientn. Non-nutHent. 

xii 



PECUNIARY ECONOMY OF FOOD--(Atwater). 
Amouuts of actualO Nutritive lnlredlents obtained in difl;,'rent 
Food $laterials for 10 cents. 
lrotein. Fat. Crbohydrates. Fuel Value. 

Pro[ein compound, e.g., lean of meat, white of egg. casein {curd) of milk. and gluten 
of wheat, make muscle, blood, bone, etc. 
Fors, e.g., fat of meat, butter and off, )L crv « fuel to yield heat and muscular power. 
C«rbohydrates, e.g., trch un(1 ugar, J ........ 

[ t --|  'l Lb-"' 2 Lb. 3 Lb. 4. Lbs. 
Beef, rond ........... -. 1 .8, 
Ieef, irli .............. | 18  .55 - 
Beef, rib .................. 16 ' .63  

Mutton, leg .............. 
Pork. spare rib ............ 
Pork, alt. fat ............ 

Haro, smoked .......... 

Codflsh, fresh ........... 

12 - 
12 .83 
14 .71 
16 .63 l 
8 1.25 
6 1.67 
I .50 
3 ', 3.33 

Butter ..... 

Eggs, 25 cents dozen.. 
Wheat bread. ........... 

24 
16 
16t 

Cornmeal ................ ] 2 
Rie.e. 
Potoes, 60 Cen bushel. 

xiii 



CONTENTS. 

Preface ..... 
Suggestions to Teachers ..... 
Composition of Food 5[aterials (Atwater) . 
Pecuniary Economy of Food (Atwater) 
CHAt'TE I. 
The Relation ,,f Food to the Budy . 

CIIAPTER II. 

Classification . 

Nutrition 

Food and Economy. 

CI=L4_PT E R III. 
CHAI)TER l-v . 
CHAPTER V. 

Foods eontaining Prote:n «,r Nitrogenous Matter 

Fats and Oils 

Carbehydrate Foods 

Fruits . 

Preparing Foc, d 
RZCPF : 
Batters, Biscuits and Bread 
]read ...... 
Sauces and Mdk Soups. 
Eggs ..... 
Fruit 
Vegetables . 
Salais .... 

CHAPTER VI. 
CI{APTE VII. 
C H .4PTER VIII. 
CHAPTER IX. 

PAGE. 
V 
• ×H 

10 

12 

34 
37 
50 
54 

60 
65 
66 
69 
72 
74 



vi CONTENTS. 

lECIPESÇontinued. 
]Ia.caronl 
Cheese . 
Ieverages 
Soup8 
Fish 
!leat 
Poultry. 
H«,t l»uddings . 
Plain Sauces 
Pastry . 
Miscellaneous 
General Hi-,ts . 
Suggestions for Young H, mekeepers 
Caring for Invalids . 
General ttints fur School Cildl.en . 
Suggestions for School Children's ])iet . 
Infants' I)iet .... 
Planning and Servlng Meals 
Considerati. n of Menus 
Suggestive Questions ...... 
Schedule of Lessons for Public. ScIo,,1 Class¢  . 
Apl,endix ...... 

86 
87 
89 
96 
104 
109 
122 
128 
10 
1.56 
lïO 
188 
..... 191 
........ 193 



I)[TBLIC SCII00L DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

CHAPTER I. 

The Reletion of Food fo the Body. 
In order to un,l,.rstand the r«.lation of 5,od to the 
sustenance and reI,airing of thc body, it will be neces- 
sary fo learn, first, of what t],e l»dy is composed, a,,d 
the corresponding elements contain,:d in the food required 
fo build and keep the body in a healthy condition. Thc 
following tuble gives the api,roxin,ate analysis of a man 
weighing 148 potmds :-- 
Oxygen ........................... 92.1 pounds. 
Hydrogeu .................. 14.6 ,, 
Carbon .................... 3 l. (; ,, 
N itrogn ............... 4.6 ,, 
Phosphorus ...... 1.4 ,, 
Calcium ....... -°.S ,, 
Sull,hur ....................... 0.24 ,, 
Chlorine ........................... 0.12 ,, 
Sodium ............................. 0.12 ,, 
lron .............................. 0.02 ,, 
Potassium ....................... 0..)4 ,, 
Magnesium ...................... 0.04 ,, 
Silica ......................... ç ,, 
Fluorine ............................ 0.02 ,, 
Total ...................... 148.00 poun,l.. 
As food contai,s all these elements, and as there is col,- 
stant wearing and repair going on in the body, it will be 
readily seen how necêssary some knowledge of the rela- 
tion of food to thc body is, in order to prcsêrvc health. 
1 



P. DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

Hydrogen and oxygen combined form water, hence we 
find from the above calculation that about three-fifths of 
the body is composed of water. Carbon is a solid: 
dialnonds are nearly pure carbon ; "lead" of lead pencils, 
anthracite coal and coke are impure forms of carbon. 
Carbon combined with other elements in the body 
makes about one-fifth of the whole weight. Carbon 
with oxygen will burn. In this way the carbon taken 
into the body as food, when combined with the oxygen 
of the inhaled air, yields heat to keep the bo]y warm, 
and force--muscular strength--for work. The carbonic 
acid (or carbon dioxide) is ven out through the lungs 
and skin. In the further study of carbonaceous foods, 
their relation to the body as fuel will be more cleady 
understood, as carbon is the most important fuel element. 
Phosphorus is a solid. According to the table, about one 
pound six ounces wouhl be found in a body weighing 
148 pounds. United with oxygen, phosphorus forms 
what is known as phosphoric acid; this, with lime, makes 
phosphate of lime, in which form it is found in the bones 
and teeth ; if is round also in tbe brain and nerves, flesh 
and blood. Hydrogen is a gas, and like carbon unites 
with the oxygen of the inhaled air in the body, thus 
serving as fuel. The water lroduced is given off in 
the respiration through the luns and as perspiration 
through the skin.* Calcium is a metal. The table given 
allows three pounds of calcium ; united with oxygen, 
calcium fOl'lnS lime. This with phosphoric acid Inakes 
phosphate of lime, the basis of the bones and teeth, in 
which nearly ail the calcium of tbe body is found. 

"An illustration of vapor rising ma)- be given by breathing upon a mirror. 



TttE RELATION OF FOOD. 

The elements which bear no direct relatioa tu the 
force production of the body, but xvhich enter into tissue 
formation, are chlorine, sulphur, iron, sodium, potassium, 
phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. Bone tissue con- 
tains about 50 per cent. of line phosphate, hence the 
need of this substance in the food of a growing infant, 
in order that the bones may become firm and strong. 
Lack of iron salts in the food impoverishes the coloring 
matter of the red blood corpuscles on which they depend 
for their power of carrying oxygen tu the tissues; 
anoemia and other disordcrs of deficient oxidation result. 
The lack of sufficient potash salts is a factor in pro, hcing 
scurvy, a condition aggrgvated by the u,e of comnton 
salt. A diet of salt meat and starches may cause it, with 
absence of frcsh fruit and vegetables. Such illustrations 
show the need of a well-balanced diet. 
In order tu undcrstand the value of the various classes 
of food and their relation tu the body as force producers, 
tissue builders, etc., the folloxving table may prove 
he]pful : 

Beef, uncooked .......................... 
Roas beef ............................ 
Calf's liver ............................. 
Foie-gras ................................. 
Sheep's kidneys ......................... 
Skate .............................. 
Cod, salted ............................ 
IIerring, sa|ted ........................... 
]erring, fresh ........................ 
Whiting ............................. 
Mackere| ................................ 
SoI ................................ 

Nitrogen. 

3. O0 
3.53 
3.09 
2.12 
2.66 
3.83 
5.0"-' 
3.11 
l .83 
2.41 
3.74 
1.91 

Combustibles 
Calculated as 
Carbon. 

] ] .00 
17.76 
15.68 
65.58 
1_o.25 
1 ri. (o 
23. »9 
21 
9.00 
19.26 
12.25 



 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

Salmon .................................... 
Oysters .................................. 
])bster, uncooked ........................ 
Ègs ................................. 
Milk (cows') ............................. 
Cheese (Brie) .......................... 
('heese (Gruyere) .................... 
Cheese (R,,quefort) ....................... 
('hocolate ......................... 
Vleat (hard ,outhern, variable average) ..... 
XVheat (sort .outhern, variable average) ...... 
Flour, white Paris) .................... 
]dye flour ....... : ............... : ...... 
Winter barley ........................... 
Maize ...................................... 
Buekwheat ............................... 
Rice ................................... 
Oatmeal .............................. 
Bread, white (Paris, 30 per cent. water) ...... 
Breml, brown (sohliers' rations formerly) ...... 
]3read, browu (sohliers' rations at present)... 
tIrea,|, from /Jour of hard wheat ............ 
potatoes ................................ 
Beans .................................. 
Lentils, dry ............................... 
Peas, dry ............................... 
Carrots ................................... 
Mushrooms ............................. 
Figs. fresh ........................ 
Figs, dry ............................... 
(Joffee (infn.ion of 100 grams) ............... 
Tea (iufusion of 100 koEams) ............... 
3.con ................................ 
Butter ................................ 
! flive oil ......... 
Beer, strong. 
Veine ................................. 

Nitrogen. 

2.09 
3.49 
2.13 
2.93 
1.90 
0. !;6 
2.93 
5O0 
4.21 
]. 52 
3.O0 
1.81 
1 64 
1.75 
I .90 
1.70 
2.20 
1 .0 
1.95 
1.08 
1 .O7 
J .°_0 
. 20 
0.33 
4.50 
3.87 
3.66 
0.31 
0.60 
0 41 
0.92 
1.10 
1.00 
1.29 
0.64 
Trace 
0.05 
0.15 

Co H. 
Combustibles 
Calculated as 
Carbon. 

16.(X) 
12.10 
7.18 
10.96 
13.50 
8. O0 
35.00 
38.00 
44.44 
58. oO 
41 
39.00 
38.5O 
4 .00 
4O. 00 
44.00 
42.50 
41.00 
44.00 
29.5O 
28.00 
3q). q |0 
31.00 
11.00 
42 00 
43.00 
44.00 
5.50 
4.52 
15 50 
34. 
9.00 
10_ 50 
71.14 
83.00 
98.00 
4.5O 
4.00 

"The hy,lrogen exi.ti." in the compound in excess of 
what is required fo form water with the oxygen 10reset 
is cIculated as Cal-bon. If is only necessa:7 fo multiply 



THE RELATION OF F(»«»D. , 

the nitrogen by 6.5 to obtain the amount of dry proteids 
in 100 grains of the fresh food substance." (DRiar,lin- 
Beauretz.) The following simple rules are giveu by 
Parks :---" 1st. To obtain the amount of nitrog'm in pro- 
tei,1 of foods, di ide the qnantity of f,»Jd by 6.:50. 2,d. 
To obtain the earbon iu fat multiply by 0.79. 3rd. To 
obtain the crbon in carl)ohy,lrate food multiply by 
0.444. 4. To obtain t]w earbon in 1,rotei«l food mu]tiI,ly 
by 0.535." 
Fin,ling tha out food and our bodies eonain essen- 
tially the saine elements, we must also bear in mind that 
the body eannoç ereate anything for itself, neither 
material nor energy ; all mus be supplied by the fo,,,l we 
eaU, which is transformed into repair matcl'ial for the 
body. Thorofore, the objeeç of , course of study dcaling 
with the science of this question, as i relates to the daily 
lire, should be to learn SOlaethilg of how food builds he 
body, repairs the wa.ste, yields ]mat and energy, and to 
teaeh le principles «,f food eeonomy in its relation fo 
health and incolne. This, with the develoi,men of ex- 
ecutive ability, is all that tan 1»«. attempt«.d in a primary 
course. 



CHAPTER IL 

Food Classification. 

The followiug are familiar exalnples of compounds of 
each of the fuur principal classes of nutrients: 
'Albuminoids, e.g., albumen of eggs ; myosin, the 
basis of muscle (lean meat); the albuminoids 
which make up the gluten of wheat, etc. 
Proteids. Gehttinoids, constituents of connective tissue which 
yield gelatin and allied substances, e.g., coilagen 
of tendon ; ossein of bone. 
"Nitrogenous extractives" of flesh, i.e., of meats and fish. 
PROT]IN.- These include kreatin and allied compounds, and are the 
chier ingredients of beef tea and most meat extracts. 
Amids: this terre is frequently applied to the nitrogenous 
non-albuminoid compounds of vegetable foods and feeding 
stuffs, among which are amido acids, such as aspartic acid 
and asparagin. Some of them are more or less allied in 
chemical constitution to the nitrogenous extractives of 
flesh. 
I Fat of meat ; fat of milk ; oil of corn, wheat, etc. The in- 
gredJents of the "ether extract" of animal and vegetable 
Fats . .. foods and feeding stuffs, which it is customary to group 
I together roughly as fats, include, with the true fats, 
various other substances, as lecithians, and chlorophylls. 
Carbohydrates, sugars, starches, celluloses, gums, woody fibre, etc. 
Miter«tl [Potassium, sodium, caleium and magnesium chlorids, sul- 
tatter. ( phares and phosphats. (Atwat¢r). 
The terres (a) " nitrogenous" and (b) " carbonaceous " 
are frequently used to designate the two distinct classes 
of food, riz.: (a) the tissue builders and flesh formers; 
(b) fuel and force producers. 
6 



WTE. 7 

Each of these classes contains food material derived 
from both the animal and vegetable kingdom, although 
the majorty of the animal substances belong to the 
nitrogenous, and the majority of the vegetable substances 
to the carbonaceous group. 
Therefore, for practical purposes, we will confine our- 
selves to the more gencral terres used in Atwater's table. 

Uses of :Food. 
First, food is use,1 to form the materia]s of the body 
and repair its waste ; second, to yiehl ener in the form 
of (1) heat fo keep the body warm, (2) to provide mus- 
cular and other power for the work it has to do. In 
forming the tissues and fluids of the body the f,o,l serves 
f,r building and repair. In yelding energy, it serres as 
fuel for heat and power. The principal tissue formera 
are the albuminoids; these form the frame-work of the 
body. They build and repair the nitrogenous materials, 
 those of muscle, tendon and bone, and supply the 
albuminoi,ls of blood, milk and other fluids. The chief 
fuel ingTedients of food are the carbohydrates an,l fat 
These are either consumed in the bo, ly or are stored as 
fat to be used a occasion dcmands. 

Water. 

By referring to a preceding chapter we find that water 
composes three-fifths of the entire body. The e]asticity 
of muscles, cartilage, tendons, and even of bones is due 
in grcat part fo the watcr which these tissues contain. 
The amount of water required by  healthy man in 
twenty-four hours (children in proportion) is on the 



8 DO31EISTIC SCIENCE. 

average between 50 and 60 ounces, beside about 25 
ounces taken as an ingmdiont of solid food, thus nmking 
a total of from 75 to 85 ounces. One of the most uni- 
versal ,liet«.tic fai]ings is neglect fo take enough water 
into the system. Dr. Gilman Th«,mi)son gives the fol- 
lowing uses of wacr in the 1)ody : 
(1) Ig enters into the ehemieal composition of 
tissues ; (2) if forms tle ehi,f ingq'edi«,nç of all the fluids 
of the bo,ly and maintains çheir proper degee of dilu- 
tion ; (3) by moisçening vmqous sm'faees of çhe body, sueh 
as the IllUCOUS and serous m/.mbmes, if 1,revents friction 
and the uncomfortable symptoms which might rcsult 
from d3-in" ; (4) it fm'nishes in the blood and lymph a 
tluid me,lium by which food may be takcn to remotc 
parts of the body and the waste marrer removed, thus 
promoting rapid tissue changes; (5) if serres as a 
,listributer of bo, lr h,.at; (6) if regulatcs the body 
cmp«.raturc l,y the physical l»roc«-ss«.s of als«wption 
and evaporati«,n. 

Salts (Mineral Natter).- Use of Salts in Food. 

(1) To regulate the specific gravity of the blood and 
other fluids of the body ; (2) fo preserve the tissues from 
«lisorganization and putrefaetion; (3) to enter into the 
eomposition of the teeth and bones. These are only a 
few of the uses of salts in the body, but are suffieient for 
out purpose. Fruits and nuts eontain the least quautity 
of salts, meat ranks ncxt, then vegetables and pulses, 
eereals eontain most of all (Chambe-s). Sodium ehloride 
(eommon salt)is the most important and valuable salt. 
If must hot however be used in exeess. Potassium salts 



liSE OF SALTS IN 1.'o«)D. 9 

rank next in importance.* Calcium, phosphorus, sull,hur 
and iron are included in this class. 
The quantity of salts or minerai ,natter contaim.d in 
some important articles of vegctable and anin,al foo, l is 
shown in this table (Church): 

Minerai Mttler in 1,000 Il»s. of 1 |5"getable l'ro,luct.. 
Lb. 
Apples ................. 4 
Riee ...................... 5 
Wheaten flour ............ 7 
Turnips .............. 8 
Pottoes ................... ] , 
Barley ................. 1 ! 
Cabbage ............. 12 

Lbs. 
Bread ............ 12 
Vfatercrcss ........ 13 
Maize ........ 20 
Oatmeal . .. 21 
l'cas .............. 30 
Cocoa nibs ........... 36 
Wheaten bran ..... 60 

of 8 Animal Products. 
Lbs. 
Flesh of common fowl ...... 16 
Bacon ................. 44 
Gloucester cheese ....... 49 
Salted herrings ......... 158 

"In most seeds and fruits there is much phosphate 
the mineral matter, and in most g-reen vegetables mueh 
l»Otash. One important kind of mineral lnatter alone 
defieient in vegetable food, and that is eommon sa]t." 

 See Vegetables, Chap. VII. 



CHAPTER III. 

Nutrition. 

It is not within the scope of this book to deal with 
the science of nutrition; but a f,.w general principles 
may be given vhich c,»ncern the eflbct upon the syste, 
of the diflrent classes of food. Animal food requires 
a considcrable quantity of oxygen for its complete 
colnbustion. Meat in gcneral has a more stimulating 
effect upon the systeln and is more strengthening than 
vegetable food. There is, however, a tendency fo eat 
too much meat, and when its effects are not counter- 
balanced by free outdoor exercise, it causes biliousness 
and sometimes gout and other troubles. Albuminous 
f«×ds can l»e eaten longer alone without exciting loath- 
ing than can rats, sugars or starchea A carbonaccous 
dict taxes the excrctory organs less than animal food. 
Mcat is hot necessary to lire. :Nitrogenous food man 
must have, but it need not be in the form of meat. 
The estimate commonly given is, that meat should 
occupy one-fourth and vegetable food three-fourths of 
a mixed diet, but in many cases the mcat eaten is 
much in excess of this allowance. The proper associa- 
tion of different foods always keeps healthy people 
in better condition; thcre are flirtes, however, when it 
l,,ay be necessary to abstain from certain articles of 
diet. It may be well to bear in mind, that the protein 
compounds can do the work of the carbohydrates and 
fats in bcing consumed for fuel, but the carbohydrates 
and iats cannot do the work of lrotein in building and 
10 



NUTRITION. 

repalrlng the tissues of the body. As already stated, 
 mixed diet is the only rational one for man. An 
exclusively vegetable dit, while if may maintain  con- 
dition of helth for a time, eventually results in  loss 
of strength and power fo resist discase. Tl,rcfore if is 
necessary to undcrstand tlm approxim«tte value of each 
class of food in rranging the daily dietary. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Food and Economy. 

It bas been stated that "a quart of milk, three-quarters 
of a pound of mo, lcrately lean becf, and rive ounces of 
wheat fl, mr contaiu al»out the saine amount of nutritive 
matel'ial ;" but we 1,ay ,liflrcnt prices for them, an,1 they 
bave diflbrcnt vahms for nutrilnent. The milk cornes 
ncarest to being a l»a'fect food. It contaius ail the dif- 
forent kin,ls of nutritive materials that the body requires. 
Brea,1 ruade froln wheat flore" will support lire. It 
contains all the necessary ingredients for noulshment, 
but hot in the proportion best adapte,l for or, lilmry use. 
A man lnight ]ive on beef aloue, but it would be a very 
Olm-sidcd and imrfect diet. Meat and bread togethcr 
lnake the essentials of a healthful ,lier. In order fo give 
a general idca of food CCOlmmy, it will be necessary fo 
deal briefly with the functious of the various food 
prilmiplcs. As our bodies contain  great deal of muscle, 
the waste of which is repaired by protein found in such 
food as lean meat, eggs, eheese, beans, peas, oatmeal, fish, 
etc., a supply of these articles lnUSt be eonsidered in 
purchasing the daily supp]y. Fatty tissue (hot muscle) 
serves as fuel, therefore the value of sueh foods as butter, 
erealn, oils, etc., is apparent. Carbohydrates tbrm fat and 
serve as lu,.1 and fome produeers; these eome in the fo 
of starehes, sugars,vegetables and grains being the moet 
important. "In heing themselves burued to yield energy, 
the mtents proteet eaeh other froln being eonsumed. 
The pl'otein and fats of body tissue are used like those 
12 



AND E{ NO3I Y. 

of foods. Au in,portant use of thc earbohy, lrates and 
fts is fo protect protcin (muscle, etc.) from consumption. 
"The ,ost healthful food is that which is best fifted fo 
the wauts of the user: the cheapest food is fhat whicb 
furnishes the largest amouut of nutriment at the least 
cost: the best food is that which is both healthful 
cheap." ]y referring fo the various charts a fait 
estimate of f,od values nay be obtaincd. 
As will be noticed, the animal foods conta]u the most 
- I)roteiu and rats, while the veget«b]e foods are rich i 
carbohydrates. A pound of cheese may have 0.2 
pound of protein, as much as  nmn af ordinary work 
needs for a day's susteuance, while  pound of mi|k 
would have only 0.04, and a pound of potatoes 0.02 
pound of pro/ein. The nmterials which have the most 
fats and carb¢hydrut,.s have the highest fuel value. 
The fuel wdue of a 1,oun,l of fat pork ,my reach 2.995 
calories, while that of , pound of sait codfish woul,1 be 
only .315 calories. On the otler hand, the nutritive 
matcrial of the codfish wouhl consist almost entirely of 
protein, while the pork contains very little. Amont tbe 
vegetable foods, peas and beans bave a high proportion 
of proteiu. Oatmeal contains a large l»r[portion a]so. 
Potatoes are low lu fuel value as we]l as in protein, 
because they are three-fourths water. For /he saine 
reaon nfilk, which is scven-eights water, ranks low 
respect fo both protein and fuel value, hence the rcason 
why it is hot so valuable as food for an adult as many 
of the other food materials. 
These few illustrations will he]p to show the need of 
an intelligent ide of food values before attempt]ng fo 
purchase the sui)plies for family use. As one-half a 



]  DOMEST1C SCIENCE. 

laboring man's income goes towards providing food, it 
must follow that such knowledge will help the house- 
wife very materially in securing the best results from 
the amount expended. 
The av,,'a_ge daily diet of an a, lult should contain 
(Churd) :-- 

Water ................... 
Albuminoids ............... 
Starch, sugar, etc .......... 
Fat ..................... 
l'ommon sait .............. 
Phosphates, potash, salts, etc 

81.5 
3.9 
10.6 
3-0 
3.7 
0.3 

Il,. oz. gr. 
5 8 .320 
0 4 .Il0 
0 I l .178 
0 3 .337 
6 O.325 
0 0 0. 170 

Quantity of Food Required. 

The quantity of food re, luired fo maintain the body in 
 vigorous condition depends upon the following condi- 
tions :---(1) Climate and season, (2) clothing, (3) occupa- 
tion, (4) age and sex. In civilized countries more food is 
eaten, as a rulc, than is necessa T to maintain hcalth and 
strength. Clinmte and seasons influence the quantity of 
food eaten. A cold, bracing atmosphere stimulates the 
appetite, tempts one fo exercise, while a, hot climate bas 
the contrary effêct ; hence the need for more or less food. 
Abundant clothing in cold weather conserves the body 
heat; less food is therefore required fo maintain life. 
Exercise and nuscular work cause 'eater oxidation in 
the tissues and greater waste of the muscles; this must 
be replaced by proper food. Outdoor work requires 
more food than indoor, and physical labor more than 



QUANTITY OF FOOD t{EQUIRED. 15 

mental. It has been estimated "that a child of ten years 
requires hall as much f(»od as a growu woman, and one 
of fourteen n equal mnount. The rapidly growing 
active boy often eats as much as a ,mn, and the middle- 
aged man requires more than the age«:[ A man of 
seventy years may preserve l,calth on a quantity which 
would soon starve his grandson." 
Just what inredients of the food serve for nourish- 
ment of the brain nd nerves, and how they do that 
service, are mystees wl,]ch have hot yct been solve,1. 
Brain and nerve contain the elcments nitrogen and 
i)hosphorus, which are f,»un«l in protein compounds but 
hot iu the true fts, sugars, aml starches, which contain 
only carbon, hy, lroEen and oxygen. We nafurally infer 
that the protcin compounds ,ust be esi»cially concerned 
in building up brain and nerve, and kçeping them in 
repair. Just how much food the brain worker needs is 
a question which has n«gt yet becn decided. In general it 
appea that a man or a w(»man whose occupati(»n is 
whaç we call sedenta'y, who is without vigorous exercise 
and does but little hard muscular work, needs much lcss 
than the man af hard manual labor, and that the brain 
workcr needs comparativel)" little of carbohydrates or 
fats. Many physicians, physiologists and students of 
hygiene have become convinced that well-to-do p..oplc, 
whose work is mental rather than physical, eat too much ; 
that the diet of 10eople of this class as a whole is 
sided as well as excessive, and tha the pncipal evil is 
the use of too much fat, starch and sugar. If is wt, ll to 
remember that if is the quantity of food digested which 
builds the body, and ,mre injury is likely fo rcsflt fr,)m 
over-eating than from a restricted diet, hence the value 



] t ]}«}MES'I'IC St'IENCE. 

«,f having f,,,d cooke,l so as to ai,l digesti,n. The follow- 
inff dictary standards may l»e interesting fo the l||Ol'e 
advanee,l pupils, housewives, etc. : 

.TANDARDS FOI', ]II.Y I)IET O1 r I.ABOI, IN«; ]AN AT |ODERATR 
I USCULAII VOP, K. 

l'layfair, Englan,1. . 
M o|eschotte, ltaly ...... 
Wolff, Germany ....... 
Voit, Gernmny .......... 
Atwater, Unitcd States.. 

lb. 
.26 
.29 
.28 
.,'26 
.-'28 

F^TS, 

lb. 
.11 
.09 
.08 
.12 
17.33 

IN'CTRIENT8 IN IIAIL't" FOOD. 

Carbo- Fuel Value. 
hydrates. 
lb. Calories. 
1.17 3.140 
1.21 3.160 
1.19 3.0,30 
1. l 0 3. (155 
8S. 1.21 3.500 

Quality of Food. 

If is a great mistake tn think tha the best is the 
chcapest in regard fo the food question, that the higher 
price,l mcats, fish, butter, etc., omtain special virtues 
lacking in the cheaper articles. 1-'oor cooki-ng is tle clief 
ca:.«'e qf t] is e'rrac in judgmet. No doubç a well broiled 
steak is more appetizing and delicate in flavor than some 
of the cheaI«'r cuts, but in propooEion fo the cost is hot 
eqnal in nutritive value; careful cooking and judicious 
flavoring rcnder the cheaper pieces of beef equally palat- 
al,le. That expensive food is hot nccessary to maintain 
lire has been clearly demonstrated by the traditional diet 
of the Scotch people with their oatmeal and hem'ing ; the 
Irish, potatoes aud buttermi|k; N'ew England, codfish and 
potatoes, an,1 pork and beans ; the Chinese, rice, etc. 
notony of diet, hovever, is no$ recommended, for reasons 



COOK1NG OF F(»OD. ]7 

given in a previous chapter, and lu the countries where a 
special diet prevails owing fo the climate, nature of soli 
and markets, the results bave hot warranted us in be- 
lieving that if is as good as s mixed diet. From this 
necessarily brief outline of the food question we have 
learned (1) thaç u knowledge of the requirements of tle 
body are absolutely necessary in r,.gulating a proper 
diet; (2) fo furnish the food principles in a cheap rather 
than a dear form; (3) fo un,|e'stand the art of cookery 
so as fo secure the full nutritive value and af the saine 
rime stimulate the ai)petite; (4) the value of economy in 
regard fo food i)riucii)les. When the housekeeper bas 
acquired this knowledge she will lave covcred tle ficld 
of food economy. Prof. Atwater says : "When we know 
whaç are the kinds ami an,ount of nutritive substances 
our ho,lies need and our food materials contain, then and 
hOt till then shall we le able to adjust out diet to the 
demands of health and i»urse." 

Cooking of Food. 
If is sometimes asked, why do we cook our food ? 
many opi)ortunities vill occur during this course of in- 
struction for a comi)arison of the customs and d«-t of 
the various countris, and the advance of ci'iliTation 
this direction, we will confine ourselves fo the dcfinition 
of the terre as if concerns ourselves. 
5If. Atkinson says, that "Cooking is the right appli- 
cation of heat for the conversion of food material." 
As much of our ïood requires cooking, how we shall 
cook if so as fo ren«ler if more palatable, more digestble, 
and with the greatst cconomy of rime, fuel and moncy, 



BOl LI.NG. 

STEWING 

is an object deserving the most careful attention. The 
art of cooking lies in the llower fo develoll certain 
flavors -«'hieh are agreeable to the I,alate, or in other 
words, vhich "make the l,outh water," without inter- 
fering with the nutritive «lualities of the food llrepared, 
fo understan,l by "xhat metlo,1 certain foods may bc 
rendered more digestible, and o provide variety. 
notony of diet and of flav«,r lessens the appetite and 
fails to stinmlate the digestive orgaus. 
The ehelnical chanes, produced by cooking food pro- 
perly, aid digestion, beside destroyi,g any gel'mS which 
may be contained in the food. 1X'eal'ly ail foods--excellt 
fruit--require cooking. The digestibility of starch dt- 
llen,ls ailnost entirely upon the manner in which if is 
cooked, esllecially the cereal class. Gastric troubles are 
sure fo follow the use of imllroperly coked grains or 
starches. (See Chall. VII.) 
Methods. 
The following are the u.ual methods observed 
in cooking, viz.: ç l boiling, (2) stewiig, (3) 
r,»asting, (4) broiling, (5) frying, (6) braising, (ï) 
baking, (,) steaming. 
Water boils at a telnperature of 212° F. 
,";immering shou.ld be af a temperature of from 
175" F. to 180 F. When ,xater bas reaehed the 
boiling i«ñnt, its tempêratul'e cannot be rai.ed, 
but will be con',:rte«l into steam; henee the folly 
of adding fuel fo the tire when water has already 
reached the boiling lloint. 
Stewing allows the .iuices of the lnea.t fo 
beconle dissolved in water heatcd to the silnmer- 



.METHODS. 19 

ing ])oint. The juiees thus dissolved are eaten 
with the meat. If hotinjured by the addition 
,,f rich sauces or fats, this is usu«dly a v:ry 
,ligestible method «,f preparing certain kin,ls of 
Broiling is cooking directly over the hot coa]s. ,,. 
A coating of coagulated albumen is formed upon 
the outer surface. çhis coating prevents the 
evuporation of the juices, which with the extruc- 
tire mtefiMs are retained and improve the 
flavor. Meat cooked in this way has a decide,1 
advuntage, in both flavor and nutritive value, 
over that which has been boiled or stcwed. 
There are, however, on]y certain kinds of meat 
that are suitable f,,r broiling. 
Fing is cooking in hot fat. The boilingvawu. 
point of fat is far above that of water. Fat 
should hot  heuted above 400  F.,  if will 
then turn dark and emit a disagreeab]e odor. 
Ffied foed, unless ve carefully ppared, is con- 
sidered unwholesome. The on]y proper method 
for frng is te» immer the food completely in a 
bath of hot fut. 
Braising is cooking meat in a covercd vcssel m«,s. 
suounded by  solution of vegetable and animal 
juices in a strong but hot boiling mperaturc. 
Tough meat muy be rended very palatable and 
nutritious by cooking in this way. The cover of 
the pan or kettle must fit closely enough fo pre- 
vent evaporatio It requires long, steady cook- 
g. The flavor is improved by browng the 



30 DO)IESTIC SCIENCE. 

BAKING. 

STEA3IING. 

DRYING. 

SMOKIIG. 

meat in either ]lot fat or in a very hot oven 
before braising. 
Baking is cooking in confined h,:at. Meat 
properly co,,ked in an oven is consid,.red by 
many authorities as quite equal in delieaey of 
flavor to that rc»asted before a tire, and is equally 
digestible. 
Steaming is eooking food over eondonsed 
steam, and is an excellent method for preparing 
f,»d whieh requires long, slow eooking. Pud- 
dings, eereals, and other glutinous mixtures are 
often eooked in this way. It is an eeonomieal 
method, and ]las the advantage of developing 
flavor without loss of substance. 

Food Preservation. 
Food is preserved by the following processes: 
(1) drying, (2) smoking, (3) salting, (4) fr,.ezing, 
(5) refrigerating, (6) sealing, (7) addition of anti- 
s;ptic and preservative substancea 
Drying in the sun and before a tire is the 
usual method employed by hou.ekeepers. Fruits 
and vegetables, meat and fish may be preserved 
by drying, the latter with the addition of salt. 
Smoking is chiefly applied fo beef, tongue, 
bacon, haro, and fish, which are hnng in a con- 
fined chamber, saturated with wood smoke for a 
long rime until they absorb tf certain percentage 
of antiseptic nmterial, which prevents the fat 
from becoming rancid, and the albumen from 
putrefying. Wcll smoked bacon cut thin and 



FOOD PRESERVATIO.. 

properly cooked is a digestible form of fatty 
food, espeeilly f(gr tubercular patients. Smok- 
ing improves the digestibility of haro. 
Salting is one of the oldest methods of pre-sALTIN 
sela-ing food. The addition of a little saltwtre 
helps to preserve Oie color of the meat. ]rine 
is frequently used fo temporarily preserve nJeat 
and other substances. Corned beef is a poI)ular 
form of salt preservation. Ail salted meats 
«luire long, slow cooking. Th«.y shou]d always 
be placcd in cold water and heated gr«ulually in 
. o,'der fo extract the sait. Salt m,'ats are less 
digestible and hot quite so nutritious as fresh 
meats. 
Food may be kept in a frozen condition ahnost FREEZI-6. 
indefinitely, but will deeonTose very quiekly 
when thawed, henee the necessity for eooking 
immediately. Frozen meat loses 10 per cent. of 
its nutritive value in eooking. 
This proeess does hot involve aetual freezing, 
but implies preservation in chambers af a tem-TI.-. 
peratm maintained a few de'ees above freezing 
i,oint. This method does hot affeet the flavor or 
nutritive value of food so nmeh as freezing. 
Sealing is aecomplished not only in the proeess 
of eanning but by eovering with substances 
whleh are impermeable. Beef has been pre- 
ser'ed for eonsiderable time by immer.ing 
hot fat in whieh if was allowed fo remain after 
eooling. 
Chemieals are sometimes used in the preserva- 
tion of food, but the other methods are saler, cs. 



CHAPTER V. 

Foods Containing Protein, or litrogenous 
Matter. 

MEAT. 

Animal foods eontain nutritive marrer in a 
eoncentrated form, and being ehemically similar 
to the composition of the body is doubtless the 
reason why they assimilate more readily than 
vegetable foo,]s, although the latter are richer in 
mineral matter. The most wfluable animal foods 
in conm,m use are nleat, eggs, milk, fish, gelatin 
and fats. 
M,:at is composed of muscular tissue, connec- 
tive tissue or oxistle, fatty tissue, blood-vessels, 
nerves, bone, etc. The value of meat as food is 
due chiefly to the nitrogenous compound if con- 
tains, the most valuable being the albuminoids: 
the gelatinoid of meat is easily changed into 
gelatin by the action of hot water. Gelatin 
when combined with the albuminoids and ex- 
tractives has considerable nutritive value. Ex- 
tractives are meat bases, or rather meat which 
has been dissolved by water, such as soup stock 
and beef tea. The object in cooking lneat is to 
soften and loosen the tissue, which reders it more 
easily digeste& Another object is fo sterilize or 
kill any germs which may exist and fo make if 
more palatable. The digestibility of meat is 
influenced by the age of the animal kille, l and 
the feeding. The following table is given as an 
average of the digestibility of animal foods :-- 



COOKING OF MEAT. 

TABLE (}F COMPARATIVE ])I(;ESTIBILITY. 
Commencing with the nost digestitJle end endlng with the least 
digeslible of meats a«l ot/er animal foods. (Thompson.) 

Oysters. 
Sort cooked eggs. 
Sweetbread. 
Vhitefis.h, etc. 
{'hicken, boiled or broiled. 
Lean toast beêf or beefsteak. 
Eggs, scrambled, omelette. 
Mutton. 
Bacon. 
Roast fowl, cl,ickên, turkey, 
etc. 

Tripe, brains, liver. 
R-ast lamb. 
Chops, mutton «,r lamb. 
Corn beef. 
Veal. 
Duck and other gaine. 
Salmon, mackerel, herring. 
Roast goose. 
Lobster and crabs. 
Pork. 
Fish, sm«,ked, dried, pickled. 

Cooking affects thc digestibility of meat, which 
is evident from the figures given in tl,e follow- 
ing table (Church) :-- 
TIME (}F ])IGESTION. 

Beef, raw ........ 2 , Mutton, r-aste,1 ...... 
Beef, half boiled .... "2 Veal, raw .......... 
Beef, well boiled .... 2: to 3 Pork, ras .......... 
Beef, hall roasted .... 2 t,, 3 F-rk, roasted ........ 
[" F-wi, boilcd ... 
Beef, well roasted ... 2 te» 4 I Tu,-key, b,iled .... 
Mutton, aw ........ o 
Mutton, boiled ..... . Vel, iSOl», br«,iled ..... 

If may be well fo add hcre that animal food is 
more digestible when cooked between 160 ° and 
180 F. than af a higher temperature. 
Cooking of ]Ieat. 
(For more general i.formation, see t2ecipes.) 
In boiling meat two principles must be con- 
sidered, the softening of the fibre and œeresel'ving 



 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

STEWING. 

ROASTIIG 
ND 
]RO1LIqG. 

of the juices. If the meat alone is tobe used it 
should be placed in suflàcient boiling water to 
completely cover, and kept st boiling point 
(212 ° F.) for a,t least ten minutes, so ms tre harden 
the albumen and prevent the eseape of the juices. 
The temperature should then be allowed fo fall 
fo silnmering poing (175 ° F.). If the water is 
kept boiling if will tender the meat touffh and 
ch T. If the juice is to be extracted and the 
bl'oth used, the meat shoul,1 be placed in cold 
watcr; if boncs are ad,led they should be eut or 
broken into small pieces in order that the gela- 
tin may be dissolved. If the water is heated 
gradually the sohlble materials are more e«tsily 
dissolved. The albumen will fise as a scum fo 
the top, but should hot be skinlmed off, as if 
contains the nlost nutriment and will settle fo 
the bottom as sediment. 
If both nlcat and broth are fo be used the 
proeess of cooking should be quite different. In 
stewing, the meat should be eut into small pieces, 
put into cold water in order that the juices, 
flavoril,g Inateril and fibre may be dissolved. 
The temperture should be gradually raised to 
simmering point and renmin st that heat for 
at least three or four hom's, the vessel being kept 
elosely covered. Cooked in this way the broth 
will be rich, and the meat tender and juicy. Any 
suitable flavoring may be dded. This is a good 
luethod for cooking ment containing gristle. 
When the meat alone is go be eaten, êithêr 
roasting, broiling or frying in deep fat is  more 



ARETIES OF MEAT. 5 

economical method, as the juices are saved. The 
shrinkage in a roast of meat during cooking is 
chiefly due to a loss of wat,.r. A sm«dl toast will 
require a hotter tire than a larger one, in ord_.r 
to harden the exterior and prevent the juices 
from escaping. Meat is a poor con,luctor of 
heat, conse,tuently a large roast exposed to thi. 
intense heat would become burne,l before the 
interior could be heate& The large roast .houl,| 
be exposed fo intense heat for a fev minutes, but 
the temperature should then be reduced, and long 
steady cooking allowed. 
Broiling (see broiling in previous chai,ter, p. 1 .q.) 

Varieties of Meat. 
Beef tongue is a tender form of meat, 
contains too nmch fat fo agree well with people °GU' 
of dclicate digestion. 
Veal, when obtained from animals kille, l too 
young, is apt to be tough, pale and indigestible, 
but good veal is considered fairly nutriti,ms. It 
contains more gelatin than beef, anti in broth 
considered valuable, especially for the sick. 
Mutton is considcred fo be more digestible 
than beef, that is well fed nmtton from shcep 
af leasç three yeam old; but as it is more diffi- 
cult to obtain tender mutton than beef, the latter 
is more generally preferred. Mutton broth 
wholesome and valuable in sic -kness. 
Lamb, when tender and of the right age, 
quite as digestible as beef or nmtton, but the 
flesh contains too large a proportion of fat. 

MUTTON. 



.9(_j D« »MESTIC SCIE.N'CE. 

F,o. 2.--Dru.grain ol euts ol vea,1. 



VARIETIES OF MEAT. 

27 

3.--Diagrn of cus of pork. 

Flo. 4.--Diagrarn ol cut o! utton. 



28 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

VEIqlSON. 

PORK. 

F¢WL. 

GASIE. 
.qWEET- 
IAItEAD. 

FISII. 

Venison is a tender meaç with shor fibres, 
which is very digestible when obtained from 
young deer, but is considered tobe rather too 
stimulating. Its chemical composition is similar 
fo lean bcef. 
Pork is  ten,lcr-fibred meat, but is very indi- 
gestible owing to the high percentage of fat, 
which is considerably more than the nitrogcnous 
material it contains. Pork ribs may htve a. 
lnuch as 42 per cent. of fat. 
Haro is more digestible when wêll boi]ed and 
.aten cold. Bacon is more emsily digested t|mn 
,4th,-r haro or pork; when cut rhin and cookt.d 
«luick]y--unti! transparent and cri.pit Call 
oft-n be catch by dyspeptics, and forms ail ex- 
cellent food for consumptives. 
Chicken is one of the most digestible of meats, 
contains considcrable phosphorus and is particu- 
lar]y valuable as f,,o,l for invalids. Turkey is 
somewhat less digestible than chicken. Ducks 
al,| geese are difflcult of digestion, un]ess quitc 
young, on account of the fat they contain. 
Gaine, if well cooked, is fairly digestible. 
Sweetbread, which is thymus gland of the 
calf, is 8 delicate and a,oTeeable article of diet, 
l,«u'ticularly for invalids. Tripe, heart, liver and 
kidneys are other forms of animal viscera used 
as foodvaluable chiefly a.s aflbrding variety. 
The chier difference in fish is the coarseness of 
fibre and the quantity of fat present. Fish 
which are highly fltvored and fat, while they 



VARIETIES OF IEAT. 9 

may be nutritious, are much less easy of diges- 
tion t|mn flouuder, sole, whitefish, and the lightcr 
varieties. The following fish contain the largest 
pcrcentage of albuminoids:--Red snapper, white- 
fish, brook trout, sahnon, bluefish, shad, eels, 
mackerel, halibut, haddock, lake trout, bass, cod 
aud flounder. The old theory that fish consti- 
tuted "brain food," on account of the phosphorus 
if contained, has proved tobe entircly without 
foundation, as in reality many fish contain 1,.ss 
of this element than meat. The tribes wlfich live 
largely on fish are hot noted for intellectuality. 
Fish having white meat when broilcd or boiled-- 
not fried--are excellent food f,»r invalids or 
people of weak digestion. Fish should be well 
cooked. 
Oysters are a nutritious food, and may beo'sES. 
eaten either raw or cooked. Lobsters, crabs and 
shrimps are called "sea soevengers," and unless 
absolutely fresh are nota dcsirable food. 
Milk contains all the elemcnts which aI'2MILK. 
necessary fo maintain life; and constitutes a 
complote diet for infants. If will sustain life in 
an adult for several months. Although milk 
furnishes a useful food, if is not essential fo a 
diet required for active bodily exercise. Itis 
seldom given fo athletes while in active trainiug. 
Adults who are able to eat any kind of food are 
kept in better health by abstaining from milk, 
except as used for cooking purposea An occa- 
sional glass of hot milk taken as a stimulant for 
tired brain and nerves is sometimes beneficial. 



Nilk is composed of water, salts, fat, milk sugar 
or lactose, albumen and easein. Average milk 
bas from 8 fo 10 pt.r cent. of eream. Good milk 
shouhl forma laycr of crc, m a]»u 2J, in. thick 
as ig stands in a quar bottle. Lactose (milk 
sugmï is an importang ine«li,n$ in milk. Ig is 
less liable fo fermen in the stomaeh than eane 
sugar. In the presnee of fermonting nitrogen- 
ous material i is eonverted into laetie aeid, 
making the milk sour. Casein is presen in milk 
chiefly in ifs alkaline f, wm, and in eonjunetion 
with ealeium phosphate. Milk aorbs germs 
from the air and fmm melean vessels very 
readily. Good, elean, uneontaminated milk 
oughg fo kc,.p fresh, exposed in a elean room 
a.t a temperature of 68: F., for 43 hours without 
souring. If the milk is tainted in any way i 
will sour in a few hours. Boiled milk will keep 
fresh hall as long again s fresl milk. Nilk 
almwbs o,lors very quiekly, therefore should 
never be lef in a frigerar with st,le eheese, 
haro, vegetables, etc., unlcss in an air-tigh jar. 
I shouhl never be lcf$ exposed in a siek room 
or near waste pipes. Absolute eleanliness is 
neeessa W for tire preservafion of milk; vessels 
in whieh i is to be kep must be thorougldy 
sealdM with boiling water, no merely whed 
ouL with warm water. 

,lfethod, of lOreservi»g Milk. 
.STERIL- Milk tobe thoroughly sterilized and germ free 
ZE»mL. must be hêated to the boiling point (212 ° F.). 



VARIETIES OF IEAT. 31 

This may bo donc i)y i, utting the milk into I,,:r- 
fectly clean bottles anti placing in a rack, iii a 
l¢,ttle of boiling x-ater, renmining until if reaches 
the lmcessal'y degree of heat. The l»,ttle sh«)ul,1 
]»e closely covered immediately after wi t h absor]J- 
ct cott«»n o1" cotton batting in or, lcr fo preve,t 
other germs getting into the milk. 
The différence between pastcurlzing and st««-il- 
izing is only in the de',î_e of heat fo which the 
milk is subjected. In pasteurizing, the milk i» 
kept af a temperature of 170 ° F. f'«m l0 fo 20 
minutes. This is considered a ])etter method f,,r 
treating milk which is fo be i'en fo yomg 
chilch-en, as itis more easily digested than steril- 
ized rnilk. Ail milk shotfl,1 l»e stcrilize,1 or pas- 
teurized in warm weather, espccilly for cl,ildren. 
Cheese is one of the nos nutl'itious of foo,ls, 
and when meat is scarce makes an excellent sub- 
stitute, a.s if contains more protci,1 than meat. 
Cheese is the s,.parated caseil of milk, which 
includes some of the fats and salts. 
Eggs contain all the in'cdients n«,ce.%ary 
support lire. Out of an egg the entire structure 
of the bird--bolmS, nerves, muscl.s, viscera, and 
feathers--is dcvel,)ped. The inner portion of 
the shell is di.ssolve,l fo furnish phosphate f«Jr 
the bones. l'he composition of a l,en's egg is 
about as follows (Church): 

PA.TE['R- 
IZED MILK. 

CIIEESE. 



32 t «)3Ii,'i'tIC SCIENCE. 

100 parts.[[ 
Album,-n ........... I 12.0 IICeinandall,nmen 
]Fat, mlgar, extrae- I [|Oil,and fat ...... 
rives, etc .....  2.0 [ Pigment extrac- 
]Iinerai marrer ..... I 1.2 || tives, etc ..... 
|]Minerai marrer... 

Yolk--ln 
100 part& 

51.5 
15.0 
30.0 

.! 
i.4 

GELATIN. 

The albul,,cn--(,r the "whitc"--of an egg is 
greatly altered by cooking. Whcn heated be- 
yond boiling point if becomes a very indigestible 
substance. Eggs cooked af a tcmperature of 
about 170  F., lcaving the whites sort, are easi]y 
digested. A raw egg is ordinarily digested in 
; hour, whi]e  baked «(, requires om o  3 
],ours. Eggs b¢&ed in pu,l,lings, or in any other 
manner, f,,rm one of the most insoluble varieties 
Gelatin is obtined from bones, ligaments, and 
other eonnee*ive issues. In eombina{io wih 
other foods i has eonsiderable nutritive value. 
The plaee ven £o i by ieniss is fo save the 
albumen of £he body ; as i does no help fo form 
tissue or repair was i{ nno replace albulnen 
eu£irey. elain will no sustain lire, bu when 
used hl he form o[ soup stock, ete., is eonaidered 
valuableas a simulan. 

LEC, UMES--lOEAS, ]EANS AND LENTILS. 
These vegetab]es cotain as much proteid Rs 
ment; yet, this beig inferior in qulity fo tht 



VARIETIES OF [EAT. 33 

eontained in meat, they can searcely be given a 
place in the saine class; therefore we will give 
them an interlaediate position in food value 
between mea and grains. From the standpobat 
of economy they occupy a high place in nutri- 
tive value, especially for out-door workers. (Sec 
1Recipes.) 

M2mlst, ci lïducat|cn, Ontario 
Histor!cal 



CHAPTER VI. 

Fats and Oils. 
Fats and oils contain three elements---earbon, 
oxygen and hydrogen. About one-fifth of the 
body is eomposêd of fat. I3efore death results 
from starvation 90 per eenç. of the body faç is 
COllSUIlled. 
(1  To furnish energy for the developmcnt of 
heat; (2) fo supply force; (3) fo serve as cover- 
ing and protection in the body; (4) fo lubricate 
the various structures of the body; and (5) fo 
spare the tissues. The rats and oils used as food 
ail serve the saine purpose, and corne 1le-fore the 
carbohydrates in fuel and force value ; in comt)in- 
ation with proteids, they form valuable foods 
for those engaged in severe muscu]ar exercise, 
such as army marching, miningexpcditious, etc. 
Fats and oils are but little changed during 
digestion. The fat is divided into little globules 
by the action of the pancreatic juice and other 
digestive elements, and is absorbed by the systcm. 
Fa.t forms the chier material in adipose tissue, a 
fatty layer lying bcneath the skin, which keeps 
the warmth in the body, and is re-asorl)e,1 into 
the blood, keeping up hea.t and uctivity, und pre- 
serving other tissues during abstincnce from 
food. Fat somctimes aids the digestion of 
starchy foods by preventing them from forming 
34 



FATS AND OILS. 35 

lumpy masses in the mouth and stomach, hence 
the value of using butter with bread, potatoes, 
etc. The niml fat.s are more nutritive than 
the vegetble, butter and cream heading the list. 
Cooking rats st a very high temperature, sueh as 
frying, causes  reaetion or deeomposition, whieh 
irritates the mucous membrane and interferes 
with digestion. 
The principal animal fats are butter, cream, 
lard, suet, the fat of mutton, pork, bacon, bef, 
fish and cod livêr oil. The vegetable fats and 
oils chiefly used as food are derived from seeds, 
olives, and nutK The most important rats and 
oils for household purposes are: 
Butter, which contains from 5 fo l0 per cent. mrrrE. 
of water, 1 1.7 per cent. fat, 0.5 per cent. casein, 
0.5 per cent. milk sugar (Konig). The addition 
of salt fo butter prevents fermentation. Butter 
will not support life when taken alone, but with 
other foods is highly nutritious and digestible. 
Cream is one of the most wholesome 
agreeable forms of fat. It is an excellent substi- 
tute for cod liver off in tubercu|osis. Ice cream 
when eten slowly is very nutritious. 
Lard is hog ftt, separated by melting. D. 
Suet is beef fat surrounding the kidneys. SrET. 
Cottolene is  preparation of cotton-seed oil. coa'ro. 
LE.W 
Oleomargrine is a preparation of beef fat pro- 
vided as a substitute for butter. «ARINE. 



;i] 1)OMESTIC SCIENCE. 

ol,ll, E OIL. 

.x I "TS. 

Olive oil is obtained from the fruit, and is 
considered to be very wholesome; in sorne cases 
being preferrcd fo either cod-liver oil or cream for 
consumptivcs. 
Cotton seed oil is fre(luently substituted for 
olive oil. 
Nuts contain et good ch-al of oil. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Carbohydrate Foods. 

The idea of starchy foo, ls is usually connected 
with such substances as buwlry starch, corn- 
starch, arrow roof, etc. Thse are, of course, 
more concentrated forms of stu'ch than pot- 
toes, rite, etc. Many starchy foods contain (_,tlwr 
ingredients, «tnd some are especially rich in 
proteids. 
The f.llowing table may help fo make this 
clear (Atwater) :-- 

Wheat bread ........ 
Wheat flour ......... 
Graham flour ..... 
Rye flour ............ 
Buckwheat flour ..... 
Beans ............... 
Oatmeal ............. 
Cornmeal ........ 
Rice ................ 

Per Cent. 
55.5 
75.6 
7! .8 
78.7 
77 6 
57.4 
68 1 
71.0 
79.4 

Potatoes ........ 
Sweet Potatoes.. 
Turnips ........ 
( 'arrot8 .......... 
Cabbage ....... 
Mlous ......... 
Apples ........... 
Pears .......... 
Bznanas ......... 

Per C't. 

21.3 
21.1 
6.9 
10.1 
6.2 
2.5 
14.3 
16.3 
'23.3 

:If is estimated that starch composes one-half 
of peas, beans, wheat, oats and rye, three-fourths 
of corn and rice, one-fifth of potatoes. Vegetable 
proteids, as already stated, are less easily digest- 
ed than those belonng fo the animal kingdom, 
therefore iç must be remembered that a purely 
vegetable dieç, even though it may be so arrang- 
ed as to provide the necessary protein, is aæ t to 
37 



38 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. • 

STAP, C|[. 

over-fax the digestive organs more than a mixed 
dieç from both the animal and vegetable king- 
dores. Mueh depends upon the cooking of 
starehy foods in order to rgn«ler them digestible. 
(Stu,ly ehapter on Digestion in the Publie Sehool 
Physiology.) 
The digestion of starch--which is insoluble in 
cold water--rcally 1),gins with the cooking, 
which by softening the outer coating or fibre 
of the ,rains, causes them fo swell and burst, 
therel)y 1)r,-paring them for the clwmical change 
which is c«msed by tbe action of the salira lu 
converting the starch into a spccics of sugar 
before if enb.rs the stomach. Substances which 
are ius,,luble in cold water cannot be absorbed into 
the l, lood, thcr«.f,,re are hot of any value as food 
until thcy |rave become c|mnged, and ruade 
soluble, which overtaxes the digestive organs 
and causes trouble. The temi,crature of the 
salira is too low fo dissolve the starch fibre 
unaide,1. Each of the digestive juiccs has 
its om work to do, and thc salira acts 
directly upon the starchy fl»od; hence the im- 
portance of thoroug|dy masticating such food as 
bread, potatocs, rice, ceruals, etc. The action of 
heat, in baking, which causes the vapor fo rise, 
and foras the crust of starchy food, produces 
what is called dcxtrine, or I)artially digested 
starch. Dextrine is soluble in cold water, hence 
the ease with which crust and toast--when 
properly ma,le--are digested. I is more 
portant fo thoroughly chew starchy food than 



St'GARS. 39 

meat, as itis mixed with anotlwr digestive juice, 
whieh acts upon if in the stomach. 

Sugars. 
Thcre arc many varietics «tf sugar in common StGAR. 
use, riz.: carie sugar, Lq'ape sugar or glucose, and 
sugar of milk (lactose). As food, sugars have 
practically the saine use as starch ; sugar, owing 
to its solubility, taxes the digestive org, ns very 
little. Over-in,lulgelme in sugar, howcvcr, ten,ls 
to cause various disorders of assimilation and 
nutrition. Sugar is also very fattelfing, 
force pr,,ducer, and ean be uscd with greater 
safcty by those engage,1 in tive museular 
work. Cane sugar is the elrified and erystallized 
juiee of the sugar eane. Ncarly hall the sugar 
used in the world cornes from sugar eane, the 
other hall frn bcet roots. The latter is hot 
quite so sweet  the eane sugar. Sugar is also 
ma,le from the sap of the maple tree, but this is 
eonsidered more of 
generally uscd for eooking purposes. 
Molsses and treac]e are formed in the process m,ssEs 
of crystllizing an,] refining sugar. Treacle is.' TREACLE. 
the vaste drained from moulds used in refining 
sugar, and usully contains more or less dirt. 
Glucose, or grape sugar, is commonly manufac- oLucos. 
tured from starch. If is found in ahnost all the 
sweeter wtrieties of fruit. If is not so dcsirable 
for general use as cane sugr. 
Honey is a form of sugar gathered by bees 
from the nectar of flowering plants, and stod 



40 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

by them in cells. Honey contains water 16.13, 
fruit sugar 78.74, cane sugar 2.69, nitrogenous 
marrer 1.29, mineral marrer 0.12 per cent. 
(Konig.) 
Grn.ins. 

WHEAT. 

While the ,q-ains contain less proteid than the 
lcgumes, they are more valuable on account of 
the vaiety of the nutrients contained in them, 
and are more ea.sily a, lapted to the dcmands of 
the appetite. Thcy, h)wever, require ],)ng, slow 
cooking in ordcr to softcn the iibre and rcn, ler 
the starch more soluble. Among the most im- 
portant we may place: 
A wheat kernel may be subdivided into three 
layers. The first or outer one contains the bran: 
second, the gluten, fats and salts; third, the starch. 
Statue of the minerai marrer for which wheat is 
so valuable is containcd in the bran, hcnce the 
value of at least a portion of that part of the 
wheat being included in bread flournot by 
the addition of coarse bran (which is indigest- 
ible) to the ordinary flour, but by the refining 
process employed n producing whole wheat 
flour. While wheat is used in other forms, 
principal use as food is in the form of flour. 
The following table, giving the composition of 
hrea, l from wheat and maize, will be of interest 
(Stone) :-- 



COiPOSITI«-*N OF BREAD. 



 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

BREAD. 

T]te most valuable food pro,luct manufactured 
from flour is bread. 
]3read contains so many of the inoTedients re- 
quired to nourish the bo,]y, viz. : ftt, proteid, 
salts, sugar an,1 starch, that it may well be 
termed the "staff of lift." As it does not con- 
tain enough fat f,»r a perfect food the ad,lition 
of butter to it rcn,h.rs it more valuable as an 
article of dict. Mrs. Ellcn H. Richards gives 
the following expbtmtin of what constitutes 
ideal bread : " (1) It shoul,1 rctain as much as 
possible of the nutritive princil, les of the/o'ain 
from which it is ma,ht ; (2} it should be prepared 
lu such , mam,-r as fo secure the complete 
assimilttion of these nutritive principles; (3) 
it should be li;'ht and p»r«»us, so as to allow the 
digestive juiccs to pcnctrate it (luickly and 
thoroughly; (4) it should be nearly or quite free 
ïrom coarse bran. which causes too rapid mus- 
cular action to allow of complote digestion. Tins 
etthct is also produced whcn the bread is sour." 
Bread is ruade fr,»m a combinatioa of fiour, 
li«tuid (either milk or water), and a vegetable 
ferment called yeast (sec ycast recipes). The 
yeast acts slowly or rtpidly according fo the 
temperature to which it is exposed. The starch 
has fo be changed by the ferment called 
dimstase (,liastse is a vegetable ferment which 
converts starchy foods into a soluble material 
called maltose) into sugar, and the sugar into 
tlcohol and carbonic cid gaz (carbon dioxide), 
when it makes itself known by the bubbles 



COMPOSITION OF BREAD. 43 

which appear and the gradual swelling of the BREAD. 
whole mss. If is the effect of the ctrbonic acid 
gas upon the gluten, which, when checked af the 
proper rime belote the ferment bcco,ncs acetic 
(sour) by baking, produces the sweet, wholesome 
bread which is the pride of all good housekeepers. 
The kneading of bread is to break up the gas 
bubbles into small portions in or, lcr that the,'e 
may be no large holes and the fermentation be 
equal ttn'oughout. The loaf is baked in order to 
kill the ferment, to render the starch soluble, fo 
expand the carbonic acid gas and drive off the 
alcohol, fo stiffen the gluten and to form a crust 
wtfich shall have a plcasant flav,,r. Much of the 
indigestibility of bread is owil,g to the imperfect 
baking; Uld,.ss the interior of the loaf has reached 
_1_ F., the bacteria con- 
the sterilizing point, o 
tained in the yeast will hot be killed, and some 
of the gas will remain in the centre of the loaf. 
The scientific meth,»l of baking bread is fo fix 
the air cells as quickly as possible af first. This 
can be d,»ne better by baking the bread in small 
loaves in separate pans, th,.reby secul'ing a uni- 
form heat and more crust, which is considered to 
be the most easily digested part of the brea,1. 
Some cooks consi,ler that long, slow baking pro- 
duces a m,»re desil'able flavor and renders bread 
more digestible. One hundred pounds of flour 
will make an average of one hundred and thirty- 
rive potmds of breud. This incrca.. ,,f wight is 
due fo the addition of water. 



4 DoMETIC SCIEgCE. 

MACA- 
RONI. 

BUCK- 
WIIEAT. 

RYE. 

CORN. 

RICE. 

BARLEY. 

3lacaroni is a flour preparation of great food 
value. It contains about six per cent. more 
gluten than bread, and is rogar,]ed by Sir Henry 
Thompson as equal fo meat for flesh-formiug 
purposes. Dieticians say tlmt macaroni, spa- 
ghetti aud vermicelli are not used so extensive]y 
as their value deserves. 
Buckwheat is the least important of the 
cereals. 
Rye is ahnost equal fo wheat in nutritive 
value. ]fs treatment in regard to bre,l naking 
is simihtr fo that of whcat. 
Corn contains fat, protei,l and starch, and 
Droduces heat and energy. It is very fatteniug, 
aud when eaten as a vegetable is considered 
difficult of digestion. Corumeal is a wholesome 
food ; it contains more fat than wbeat flour, and 
less mineral nmtter. 
lice constitutes  staple food of a great many 
of the world's inhabitnts. It contains more 
starch than any other cereal, but when properly 
c,,kcd is very easily digested. It should be 
combined with some animd food, as it contains 
too little nitrogen to sati.fy the demands of the 
sy.stem. It forms a wholesome combination 
with fruit, such as apples, peaches, prunes, 
1,.l'ries, etc. 
]3arley is almost equal to wheat in nutritive 
value. It contains more fat, mineral nmtter and 
cellulose (cellulose is often called indigestible 
fibre, as it resists the solvent action of the 



VEGETABLES. 45 

digestive juices, and is of no value as a nutrient 
and less proteid and digestible carbohydrates. 
Oatmeal is one of the most valuable foods. 
Oats contain fat, proteid, salts and cellulose, 
addition to a large pcrcentage of starch. The 
nutritive value of oatmeal is 'eat, but much 
depends upon the manner of cooking. (Ste 
recipes.) People who eat much oatmeal should 
lead a vigorous out-door life. The following 
analysis of oatmeal is ,dven (Lethcby):-- 
litrogenous marrer ............ 12. 6 per cent. 
Carbohydrats, stareh, etc ......... 63.8 " 
Fatty marrer .................... 5.6 " 
liueral marrer .................. 3.0 " 
Water ......................... 15.0 " 

Total .................... 100. 0 

Vegetables. 
Lecumes--peas, beans and lentils--have an 
exceedingly leathery envch-Te whn old; and 
unless soaked for a long rime in cold water--in 
order fo soften the woody fibre--and are then 
cooked slowly for some hours, are very indigest- 
ible. Pea and bean soups are considered very 
nutritious. Lentils grow in France; they are 
dried and split, in which form they are used in 
sOlllDS. 
Potatoes are the most popular of all the tubrs. 
As an article of diet they possess little nutritive 
value, being about three-fourths water. Th,îy 
contain some mineral mtter, hênce the reason 
why they are better boild and baked in their 

POTATOES. 



,[ DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

skins, so as to prevenb bhe escape of the salts 
into the weter. Pottoes ere more eeily digesV 
c,l whcn bked than cookc, l in any other form. 
EES Beets contain between 85 and 90 per cent. of 
starch aud sugar, some sa)ts, and a little over ont 
l»r cent. of protcid matt,:r. Y«»ung beets, either 
ù the form of  veg«,table or  s]a,l, are con- 
si,lcrcd fo be very wholesome. 
,:aos, Cagots, turnips, pa.rsnip8 and oystcr plant,, 
TUNIPS, although containing a large pcrccntage of water, 
PARSNIPS, ._ 
«,YSTER are consid«.r.,l valublc as nutrien, the turnip 
PLT. bchg thc lcast nutritious. 
GREEN (r,,cll vegctables do hot contain much ]mt6- 
VEGE- ment, and re chicfly va]uable as atfi»r, ling a 
TABLES. 
l,h.asing variety in diet; also for supplying 
mineral marrer nd some acids. In this cIs 
we may includc cabbag-e, cauliflower, spinh, 
h.ttuce an,l celcry. 
• oa- Tomatoes re who)esome vegctablcs; on ac- 
• ,,ES. C«,unt of the oxlic cid th,.y contain thcy do not 
«dways aq'ee with peol»lc of dclicate digestion. 
, 
cvcç- (ucum)ets are neithr wholcsome nor di- 
E g:stible. 
aw» Aspargus is a much prizcd vegetb]e. The 
cs. substance called asparagin which if contains is 
supposed to possess some value. 
nuan. Rhubarb is a who]csome vegeble. 
ON,,s. ()ni,,ns, garlic, and shllots are valuable both 
GARLIC, 
SHLOS. aS condiments and eaten scparate]y. They con- 
tain more mtrients than the lt vegetabl 
considcred. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Fruits. 

Fruits are composed largely of water, with 
starches, a vegetal)le jelly, pt'ctin, cellule,se and 
organic aci,ls. The most important acids in fruit 
are citïic, malle and taïtaric. Citric acid is 
found in lemons, limes and oranges; tartaric 
acid in graI3es; malle aci,l in apples, pears, 
peaches, apricots, gooseberries and currants. 
Among the last acid are peaehes, sweet alTles , 
bananas and prunes. Strawberries are moder- 
ately acid, while lemons and currants contain 
the m,Jst acid of ail. 

Uses of Fruit. 

(1) To furnish nutriment ; (2) to couvey water 
fo the system and relieve thirst; (3) to introduce 
variots mineral marrer (salts) and acids which 
improve the quality of the blood; (4) as anti- 
scorbutics; (5) as laxatives and cathartics; 
(6) fo stimulate the appetite, improve digestion 
and provide variety in the diet. Apples, lemons 
and oranges are especially valuable for the pot- 
ash salts, lime and maesia they contain. 
Fruit as a comm,m article of daily diet is highly 
beneficial, and should be used freely in season. 
Cooked fruit is more easily digested than raw, 
and when over-ripe should always be cooked in 
order fo prevent fruit poisoning. 
47 



48 

TEA. 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

Nuts contain proteid, with some starch and 
sugar, but are hot considcr,.d valuable as nu- 
trients. Cocoanuts, almonds and English walnuts 
are the most nutritious. 

Beverages. 

Tannin is an astringent of vegetable origin 
which exists in tea, is also fould in cottie and 
wines, and is vçry injurious. Tea is a prepar- 
ation ruade fl-«t the leaves of a shrub called 
Thea. The diflçrence between black and green 
tea is due fo the mode of preparation, and not f 
separate spccics of plant. Green tea contains 
m,,re tamfin than black. The following table 
will show the difl;_.rence :-- 

(:rude protein ............... 
Fibre ........................ 
Ash (minerai marrer) ........... 
Theine ........................ 
Tannin ..................... 
Total nitrogen .............. 

GREE.' TEA. BLACK TEA. 

37.43 
10.06 
4.92 
3.20 
10.64 
5.99 

38.90 
1 O. 07 
4.93 
3.30 
4.89 
6.22 

The stimulating proprtics which/ca possesses, 
as well as its color and flavor, depend upon 
the season of the year af which the leaves are 
gathered, the variet.y of the plant the age of the 
leaves, which become tough as they grow older, 
and the tare exercised iii their preparation. 
Much depends upon the manner in which tea is 
infused. (1) Use freshly boiled water; (2) allow 



lb to infuse onIy three or four minubes, in or,|er 
to avoid extracting the tannin When carefully 
prepared as above, tea is nob considered unwhole- 
some for people in good health. 
Coffee is ruade from the berries of 
arabica, which are dricd, r«Jasted and browne,l. 
The following table gives an approximate idea 
of the composition of coffee beans (Konig) :-- 
Water .................................. l. 15 
Fat .................................... 14.48 
Crude fibre ............................... 19.89 
Ash {mineral matter) ..................... 4.75 
Caffeine .................................. 1.'2,: 
Albumiaoids ............................. 13.98 
Other nitrogenoua matter ................. 45.09 
Sugar, gum and dextrin .................... 1.66 
Cffee is frequently adulterated with chicory, 
which is harmless. Coflhe should nob be allowed 
to boil long or stand in the coffee pot over a tire, 
as the tannin is extracted, which renders it more 
indigestible, hIuch controversy has been in- 
dulged in over the effccb of coffe upon the 
system, but like many other similar questions it 
bas hot reached a practical solution. The general 
opinion seems fo be that when properly made 
and used in moderation lb is a valuable stimulant 
and hot harmful fo adult 

Cocoa and chocolate contain more food sub-cocon. 
stances than tea or coffee, although their use in 
this respect is not of much value. The following 
table gives the analysis of cocoa (Stutzer):-- 
4 



AL('« »HOL. 

Theobromine ............................ 1.73 
Total nitr.geaous substance ................. 19.-°S 
Fat .................................... 30. 51 
V'ater ................................. ,.83 
Ash {minerai marrer} ..................... 8.30 
Fibre and on-nitrogenous extract ...... 3'. 48 
Tbe use of alcohbl is wbol]y unnecessry fer 
the hea]th of the hmmtn organism. (See Public 
School Physiology and Temperance.) 

Condiments. 

Condiments and spices are uscd as food ad- 
juucts; they supply little nourishment, the effcct 
l»..ing min]y stinm]ating, and are very injurious 
when used in excess. Thcy a,]d flvor fo foo,l 
and relieve monotony of di,.t. The use of suc], 
con«liments as pepper, curry, pickles, vin'gar and 
mustard, if abused, is decidedly harmful. Sait 
is the only necessary eondiinent, for reasons 
given in the chaptcr on raillerai matter. The 
blen,lin,g of flavors so as t.o make food more 
palatal»le without bcing itÙure,l is one of the fine 
arts in cookery. Some flavors, such as lemon 
juice, vinegar, etc., incrense the solw.nt pr,,p,.rties 
of tbe gastric juice, nmking certain foo,ls more 
digestible. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Preparing Food. 
The knowle,lge of f,)«»l wtlues and their rela- 
tion to the body will be of little use f,»r practical 
purposes unless combine,l with the knowledge of 
how the various foods should be pl'epar«.,l, either 
by cooking or in whate»r forln circumstauccs 
and the material nmy require. The first requi- 
site for cooking purposes is hcat ; this neccssitates 
the use of fuel. The fuels cl,iefly uscd for house- 
hold purposes are wood, ce»al, kr,».ene oi! and 
gas. Soflz w,»o,]s, such as pine or birch, are best 
for kind]ing and for a quick tire. Har, l woods, 
oak, ash, etc., burn more slowly, retain the heat 
longer, and are better adapted for cooking 
purp,»ses. 
Coal (anthracite) is about 95 per cent. carbon. 
It kindles slowly, gives a steady boat, and burns 
for a longer time without attention than wood. 
St»ves for burning oil an,l gas bave boc<,me 
popular, and are ver)- convenient and satisfacIx»ry 
for cooking purposes. 
Oil is considercd to be the cheapest fuel. oto. 
Gas is a very satisfactory fuel for cooking pur- 
poses, but can only be used in certain localities. 

Making and Care of a Fire. 
Great care should be exercised in the se]ection 
of a store or range. The plainer the range the 
51 



OARE OF 
A FIRE. 

easier it will be to keep it clean. There should 
be plcnty of damI,ers that can be used to hasten 
the tire or to check it. Learn thoroughly the 
management of the range before beginning fo 
cook. In lighting a tire, remove the covers, 
brush the soot fr,,m the t,»p of the oven into the 
tire-box; clean out the grate (saving all the un- 
bmaaed coal, and cin,h.rs). Put in shavings or 
paper, then kin,lling arranged crosswise, allowing 
plenty of air space bct, ween the pieces, a little 
hard wood and a single layer of coal. Put on 
the covers, open the direct draft and ovcn damper, 
then light the paper. When the wood is thor- 
oughly kin, lled and the first layer of coal heated, 
fill the tire-box with coal evcn with the top of 
the oven. When the blue flame becomes white, 
close the oven damper, and ",vhen the coal is burn- 
ing free]y, shut the direct draft. Whên coal be- 
cornes bright red all through it has lost most of 
its heat. A ga'eat deal of coal is wasted by filliag 
the tire-box too full and leaving the drafts open 
till the coal is re,l. To keep a steady tire it is 
better to a,hl a little coal often rather than to 
add a large quantity and allow it to buaa 
out. :Never allow dust or cindcrs to accumulate 
around a range, êither inside or out. Learn fo 
open and shut the oven d,9or quietly and quickly. 
Study the amount of tire re«luired to heat the 
ovcn to the desired temperature. Learn which 
is the hottcr or coolcr side of the oven, and move 
the article which is being bakcd as required, 
being very careful to move it gently. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIOlgS. 

Measurements. 

Accurate measurement is nccessary fo insure success 
in cooking. As there is such a diversity of opinion as 
to whut constitutes a heaping spoonful, al| the measure- 
ments given in this book will be by level spoonfuls. A 
cupful is all the cup will hold without rumfing over, and 
the cup is one holding ½ pint. 

The following t«ble may be use,l where seales are n,,t 
convenient :-- 

4 cups of flour ........................... - 1 pouml or 1 quart. 
2 cups of solid butter ...................... 1 ,, 
 cup butter ...............................  ,, 
2 cups granu]ated sugar .................... ] . 
2] cups powdered sugar ..................... 1 ,, 
3 cups meal ............................... - 1 ,, 
I pint of milk or water ...................... 1 ,, 
1 plat chopped meat, packed solidly ........... 1 ,, 
9 large egs, 10 medium eggs ............... l « 
2 level tablespoonfuls butter. ................ l ounce. 
4 . ,, . ................ = 2ouncesortcup. 
Butter the size of an egg ................... 2 ,, ,, - 
2 level tablespoonfuls sugar ................... l ,, 
4 ,, ,, flour ............... ---- 1 ,, 
4 . » coffee ................  1 ,, 
4 ,, , powdered sugar ..  l ,, 

Table of Abbreviations. 

Saltspoon .................. ssp. Teaspoon .................. tsp. 
Tablespoon .............. tbsp. Cupful ...................... cf. 
Pint ........................ pt. Quart .................... qt. 
Gallon ..................... gaL Peck ........................ pk. 
.& speck (spk.) is what you ean put on a quarter inch square surface. 



53 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

Time-table for Cooking. 

BAKING BREAD, CAKES AND IUDDINGS. 

Ix)af bread ........ 
Graham geins -o5 
Sponge cake .... 45 
Cookies ...... 10 
lice and tapioca . 1 
Custards .......... 15 
Pastry (thin puff) .. 10 
lie crust ......... -o5 
Baked beans ....... 6 
Scalloped dàshes .... 15 

to 60 m. 
t,» 30 m. 
to60 m. 
to 15 m. 
hr. 
to œe0 m. 
to 15 m. 
to 30 m. 
to 8 hrs. 
to 90 m. 

Rolls, biscuit ..... 10 fo 20 m. 
Giugerbread ....... 25 to 30 m. 
Fruit cake ......... 2 to 3 hrs. 
Brcad pudding .... 1 hr. 
Indian pudding .... 2 to 3 hrs. 
Stcamedpudding .. 1 to 3 hrs. 
Pastry (thick) ...... 30 to 50 m. 
Potatoes ......... 3,} to 45 m. 
Braised meat ...... 3 to 4 hrs. 

BAKIO I gATS. 

Beef, sirloin, rare, per lb ............................. 8 to 10 m. 
Beef, well done, per lb ............................... 1 ° - fo 15 m. 
Beef, rolled rib or rump, per lb ...................... 12 to 15 m. 
Beef, fillet, per lb ............................... 20 to 30 m. 
Mutton, rare, per lb ................................. 10 m 
Mutton, well done, per lb ............................. 15 m. 
Lamb, well done, per lb .............................. 15 m. 
Veal, well done, per lb ............................. 20 m. 
Pork, well done, per lb .......................... 30 m. 

Turkey, 10 lbs. weight ............................ 2½ hrs. 
Chicken, 3 to 4 lbs. weight ........................... 1 fo l hr. 
Goose, 8 lbs ....................................... 2 hrs. 
Tame duck ........................................ I fo 1. hr. 
Gaine ........................................... 40 to 60 m. 
Grouse ............................................ 30 fo 40 m. 
Small birds ................................... 20 to P5 m. 
Venison, per lb ................................... 15 m. 
Fish, 6 to 8 lbs ....................................... 1 hr. 
Fish, small ......................................... 30 to 40 m 



TABLE OF PROPORTIONS. 55 

Rice, green corn, peas, tomatoes, asparagus (hard boiled 
eggs) .......................................... 20 fo .°5 m. 
Potatoes, macaroni, squash, celery, spinach ............ -°5 to 30 n 
Young beets, carrots, turnips, onions, parsnips, cauliflower 30 to 45 m. 
Young cabbage, string beans, shell beans, oyster plant... 45 to 60 m. 
Winter vegetables, oatmeal, hominy and wheat .......... 1 fo 2 hrs. 

Smelts, croquettes, fish halls .......................... 1 to 2 n 
Muffins, fritters, doughnuts ........................... 4 to 6 m. 
Fish, breaded chops ................................. 5 fo 7 m. 

BIOILING. 

Steak, lincbthick.. 6 to 8 m. 
.teak, 13 inch thick. 8 to 10 m. 
Fish, small ......... 6 to 8 m. 

I Fish, thick ... 12 to 15 m. 
Chops ............ 8 to I0 m. 
Chicken .......... ) m. 

Table of Proportions. 

1 qt. of liquid to 3 qts. of flour for bread. 
1 qt. of liquid to 2 qt-. of flour for muffins. 
1 qt. of liquid to 1 qt. of flour for batters. 
1 cup of yeast (l yeast cake} to 1 qt. of liquid. 
1 tsp. of soda (level}, 3 of cream tartar to 1 qt. of flour. 
1 tsp. of soda to I pt. of sour milk. 
1 tsp. of soda to 1 cup of molasses. 
4 tsps. of baking powder to 1 qt. of flour. 
1 tsp. of salt to 1 qt. of soup stock. 
1 ssp. of salt to 1 loaf of cake. 
1 tbsp. of each vegetable, chopped, to 1 qt. of stock. 
l½ tbsp. of fleur to 1 qt. of st,,ck fer thickening soup. 
1 tbsç. of flour to 1 pt. of stock for sauces. 
1 tsp. of salt to 1 pt. of stock for sauces. 
4 tbsps. (levcl} cornstarch to 1 pt. of milk (to mouhl}. 
1 tsp. of salt to 2 qts. of flour for biscuits, etc. 



56 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

STIRRING. 

BEATINGo 

CUTTING 
OR 
FOLD1NG. 

Methods for Flour Mixtures. 
Stirring is simply blending two or more ma- 
terials by moving the spoon round and round 
until smooth an«l of the proper consistency. 
Beating is brinng the spoon up through the 
mixture with a quick movemnt so as to entangle 
as much air as possible. 
Cutting or folding is adding the beaten white 
of egg to a mixture without breaking the air 
bubbles, by lifting and turning the mixture over 
and over as i f,_dding. Do nt stir or bçat. 



RECIPES. 

BATTERS, BISCUITS AND BREAD. 
POPOVERS. 
2 cups of flour. 2 cups of milk. 
3 eggs. ½ tsp. sait. 
Best the eggs (without separating) until very light, 
then add the milk and salt; pour this mixture on the 
flour (slowly), beating all the while. Best until slnooth 
and light, about rive minutes. Grease gem i)ans or small 
cups, and bake in a moderately h,Jt oven ab«mt thioEy- 
rive minutes. They should increase to tirer tilnes their 
original size. (This recipe may be divided for class 
work.) 
PAXCAKES. 
1 pint of fl,»ur. 2 eggs. 
1 tbsp. of melted butter. 2 tsps. baking powder. 
1 pint of milk. ½ tsp. sait. 
Beat the whites and yolks of the eggs separately; 
add fle yolks fo the milk, then the melted butter ; salt. 
Sift the baking powdcr and flour together, a, hl slowly 
to the liquid, stir until smooth. Lastly, add the whites of 
the eggs. These may be eooked in waflle irons or on a 
griddle. 
PANCAKES WITH BUTTERblILK. 
1 pint of buttermilk. [ ½ tsp. sait. 
Flour to make a medium batter. [  tsp. soda. 
Crush the soda, add if and the salt fo the buttermilk, 
add the flour gn-adually, beat until the barrer is slnooth, 
and bake on a hot griddle. An egg may be added. 
57 



58 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

CORNMEAL GRIDDLE CAKES. 
1 pint of Indian meal. ] 3 eggs. 
1 cul) of flour. [ 4 (I.) tsps. baking powder. 
1 tsp. sait. I pint of milk. 
Put the lneal into a bowl, and pour over it just enough 
boiling water to scal,l it ; do not make it sort ; let stand 
until cool. Th,.n a,l,1 the milk ; b,:at the eggs until very 
light, add them to thc ba.tter, a, ld the flour and salt in 
which the baking 1,)w,l,.r hs been siïted. Mix well, 
beat vigorously f,»r a minute or two, and bake on a hot 
griddle. 
BREAI, GRIDDLE CAKES. 
1 pt. of milk. 3 (I.) tsps. baking powder. 
½ tsp. of sait. . pt. stale bread crumbu. 
½ tsp. of soda and 1 tsp. 2 eggs. 
eream tartar. Flour fo make a rhin barrer. 
Soak the bread in t]m milk for o,,e houe, then beat 
if smooth. ]eat the egs separately till very light, 
add first the yolks, then the flour and sait and baking 
powder. Beat again, a, ld the whites, an,] bake quick]y 
on a hot gridd]e. 
BUCKWHEAT CAK ES. 
I 10t. boiling water. x cup corn or (lraham meal. 
½ tsp. salt.  yeast cake. 
{ cup white flour. I cup buckwheat floar. 
1 ssp. soda. 
Pour the boiling water on the corn or Graham meal, 
add the salt, and when lukewarm add the flour, bea 
until smooth, then add the yeast. Let if rise over nigh. 
In the morning a, ld the soda just l)efore bakiug (milk 
may te use,1 i,lstead of water). A tablespoonful of 
molames is sometimes added in order to make the cakes 
a darker brown. 



RECIPES---BATrERS, BISCUITS AND BREAD. 59 

FRITTERS. 
Beaç çwo eggs togethcr until light., add to them 1 cup 
of milk, ½ tsp. salç and sufficient flour to make , l)atter 
thaç will drop from the SlOOOn. Bcaç until smooth. Have 
remly a dcep pan of hoç fat; add 3 (l.)tsps. of ])akilg 
powd«,r ço the batter, mix thoroughly an,l drop by spoon- 
fuls iat.o the hoç ftt When brown ou one si,le turn and 
brown on the other; take ot with a skimm«-r «m,l serve 
very hog. Do hotpierce with a fork as ital]«»ws tl,c 
steanl fo escl»e and makes the fritter heavy. 
(IEMS--WH«LE "VHEAT «II GRAHAM (_lE.MS. 
2 cups of whole wheat flour. 2 eggs, beaten separately. 
½ tsp. salt. 1 cup mi]k. 
1 tbsp. sugar. 1 cup water. 
Mix flour, saltand sugar. Beat the eggs until light, 
add the milk an,l water, stir tMs into the dry mixture. 
Bake iii hot gem pans for 30 minutes. 

1 cup cornmeal. 
1 cup flour. 
I t cups milk. 
2 tbsps, butter. 

CORN 3[VFFINS. 
2 tbsps, sugar. 
½ tsp. salt. 
2½ tsps. baking powder. 
1 egg. 

Mix all t]e dry ingredients togcther. M_lt the butter 
in  hot cup. Beat the egg till light. A,l,l the mi|l,: fo 
if and turn this mixture into the bow1 cont,'tining the dl'y 
ingredients. A,l,l the mclted butter and beat vigorously 
and quickly. Pour into Luttcrcd lllUflïll or gem paris, and 
bake for one-half ]mur in e moderate oven. 

QuwK 3[UFFINS OR (EMS. 
1 pt. of milk. 4 tsps. baking powder. 
l oz. butter, l tsp. salt. 
3 cups of flour. 3 eggs. 



(J0 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

Beat the eggs separately till light, add the yolks to the 
milk, then the flour, which must be nore or less, accord- 
ing fo the quality. The barrer must be rhin and pour 
from the spoon. Now add the melted butter and salt; 
give the whole a vigorous beating. Tow add the baking 
powdcr and the well beaten whites, stir till thoroughly 
mixcd, take in nuflàn rings in a quick oven or on the 
griddle. 
TEA BISCUIT. 
1 pt. of flour. I ½ tsp. salt. 
1 cup milk. ] 1 tbsp. lard or butter. 
2½ tsps. baking powder. ½ tsp. sugar. 
Mix thotughly in a sieve the flour, sugr, salt and 
baking powder, and rub through the sieve. Rub the 
buttcr or lard into this mixture. ow add the milk, 
stim-ing (luickly with a strong sI,oon. Sprinkle the board 
with flour, turn out the dough upon if. Roll fo the 
thickness of about ½ inch, cut with a small cutter. Bake 
in a quick oven. Do hot crowd the biscuit in the pan. 
They should bake fl',m 10 to 15 minutes. (All biscuit 
doughs should be mixe,1 as soft as it is possible to handle. 
Sour milk raay be used in this rccipe by substituting 
soda for the baking powder.) 

HOT CORN READ. 
1 qt. of cornmeal. 1 oz. of butter. 
1 tsp. of salt. 2 eggs. 
I pt. sour milk or buttermilk. 1 tsp. of soda. 
Put the cornmeal in a large bowl and pour over if just 
enough boi]ing water fo scald if through. Let if stand 
until col,l, thn a,_l,] the eggs well beaten, the milk or 
buttermilk, salt, and butter (melted); beat thoroughly. 
Dissolve the soda in two tbsps, of boiling water, stir into 



RECIPESBATTERS, BISCUITS AND BREAD. 61 

the mixture, turn quickly into a q'ease,l square, shallow 
I)an, put into a hot oven and bake 40 minutes. 

SHORTCAKES. 
(Suitable for strawberries or any weetened fruit. ) 
1 pint flour. 2. tsps. baking powder, or ½ tsp. 
1 cup swcet or sour milk. soda and 1 tsp. cream tartar. 
 cup butter. " ½ tsp. sait. 
llix the salt, soda, cream tartar or baking powder 
with the flour, sift ; rub iu the butter until fine like meal. 
Add the li,luid gradually, mixing with a knife, and use 
just enough to make it of a light spongy consistency. 
Turn the dough out on a well fl,,ured board, I)at lightly 
into a fiat cake and roll gently till hall inch thick. Bake 
either in a spider or I)ie I)late in the oven ; si)lit, butter, 
and si)read with the fruit. 

DOUGHNUTS. 
1 egg. ½ cup sugar. 
1 tbsp. melted butter. 1 CUl» milk. 
½ tsp. salt. ½ tsp. soda. 
1 tsp. cream tartar. I ssp. cinnamon. 
Flour enough to make into a soft dough. 
Mix ail the dry ingredient% beat the egg until light, 
add fo this the milk, sugar and melted butter. Pour 
into the flour, mixing carefully into a sort dough. Have 
the board welI floured. Poll only a large spoonful at a 
rime. Cut into the desired shai)e aud drop into hot fat. 
The fat should be hot enough for the dough to rise to 
the toi) instantly. 



62 DOMESTICSCIE.N'CE. 

BREAD. 
As bread is one of the most important articles of the 
,laily diet, if naturally follows tlmt special attention 
,should be given to a subject upon which the health 
of the f«mily, fo a great extent, dei)ends. A know- 
le,]ge of the chemical changes and their effect (see Chai). 
VII) n,ust be understood before proficieny in bread- 
making can be attained. The first element to consider is 
the y,'«t.'t, and the generating of carbonic aci,1 gas, so 
as fo have the brea, l light, tend.r, anal I)orous. 
Yeast is a plant or vegetable growth pr«gluced from 
grain which has commenced fo bud or sprout, and which 
forms the sub,stance called diastase. This substance has 
the power to c,,vert ,star,'h into sugar. (See Champ. VII 
for eflhct of yea,st upon th,ur.) 
The temperature af which fermentation takes I)lace, 
and when to check it, are important features of bread- 
making. 
The liquid (milk or water) should be tei)id when mixed, 
as too great heat de,stroys the 'owth of the yeast. The 
dough should ri.se in a tcmp-rature of 75 ». After 
fermentation has become active the t««nperature may be 
gradually lowered--as in setting bread over night-- 
without in jury. 
Avoid a cobl draft or sudden change of temperatm'e, 
as if checks fermentation md affects the flavor. 
N,.ver allow br.d fo rise until if "settles," or runs 
over the ,si,le of the bowl. The usual rule is fo let if 
rise until it is double in bulk, both in the bowl and after 
if is I)ut into the I)ans. If if is hot convenient fo bake 
the bread when rea,ly, it may Le kneaded again and kept 



RECIPES--BRED. 63 

in , cool place, to I)revent souring. Bread should be 
mixed in a stone or granite bowl. 
The only lleCesS«tl'y ingq'edients for bread are 
flour, salt, and yeast. Sugar may be a,l,h:d to reste»re 
natural sweetness of the fl«»ur which bas been lost dm'ing 
fermention, but it is hot necessary. If milk is uscd, 
and the bread well kneadcd, no other shortening is re- 
quired; but with watcr, fle a,ldition of  ]ittle butter 
or dripping nmkes the brcad more tender, thcrcfore it 
is more easily penetrated },y the digestive flui,ls. Tough, 
leathery bread is not easily digcstcd, no marrer how 
light it may be. As alrcady stated, by the action of 
heat the ferment is killed, the starch-gahs ruptured, 
the gas carricd off, and the crust formcd. In ordcr 
bread m:y be thoroughly c,,»ked, and plenty of crus 
fone,], ech le,af should be bakc,l in a i,an al)ou 4 ich,.s 
dcep, 4 fo 6 inches wi,le, and fr«m 8 to 12 inches 1,mg. 
Smaller loaves are cven more desirable. It is vcry diffi- 
cult  bake a large loaf so as to insure the escal)e of 
all the carbonic aci,l gas, an,l fo cook the starch 
ciently without injuring the trust, b,.si,l,.s entai]ing an 
unnecessary waste of fuel. The custom of baking sev- 
ertl loaves togethcr in one 1,rge pan is contrary to all 
scientific rules of brea,]-nmking. The owîn sh,»uld be hot 
enough to brown a spnful of flour in rive minutes, 
for bread. The dough should l'ise during the first fifteen 
minutes, then begin fo brown; keep t],e ]mat steady for 
the next fifteen or twenty minutes, then decrease it. If 
tire oven is too hot a hard crust will form and prcvent 
the dough from rising, which 'ill not only cause the 
bread  be heavy, but will prcvent the gas from 
esping. If, on the other hand, the oven is not hot 



6 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

enough, the bread will go on rising until if becomes sour. 
A loaf, the size already mentioned, should take from 
fifty-five fo sixty minutes fo bake, and should give a 
hollow sound, if tapped, when removed from the oven. 
B.tt.r take too long than hot long enough, as doughy 
brca,1 is most objectionable and unwholesome. If the 
crust is bcginning fo burn, cover the loaf with brown 
paper, and rcduce the heat, but bave a brown crust, hot 
a whity-brown, which is usually hard and without flavor. 
Upon removing the loaves from the paris, place them 
on a rack, where the air may circulate freely. Never 
leave warm bread on « pine table, or where if wfll absorb 
odors. 

BREAD [ADE WITH WATER. 

2 quarts flour. 1 tbap. butter, dripping or lard. 
1 tbsp. sugar. ½ cake compreaaed yeast, dissolved 
1 pint lukewarm water, in ½ cup water. 
1 tsp. aalt. 
(This recipe ia for Manitoba flour. A little more fine flour wouhl be 
neceasary. } 
Sift the flour. Put the salt, sugar and butter into a 
large bowl, pour on the watna water, stir until they are 
dissolved. A,hl the flour gra, lually until if forms a rhin 
barrer, then add the yeast; beat vigorously for af least 
tire minutes. A,ld more flour until the dough is stiff 
enough to knead. Turn ouL on the board and knead for 
half hour. Cover and let rise until double ifs bulk. 
Form into separte loaves, put into the pans, cover, and 
let rise again till double its bulk. ]3ake in a hot oven 
about an hour. (SIilk or half milk may be substituted 
in this recipe.) 



R EC1 I'ES--BR EA D. . 

1 tbsp. butter. I 1 tsp salt. 
1 tbsp. sugar. I 1 pt. water. 
 cup yeast or  yet cake. About 2 qts. flour. 
Puç çhe butter, sugar and lç in the mixing bowl, add 
 cup boiling water to dissolve them ; then add enougb 
lukewarm water to nmke a pint, 3 cups of flour, thon 
the yeast (if the cake is used dissolve in  cup tcpid 
water). Give it a vigorous b,ating, cover, and h.t it rise 
over nighç. In the morning add flour to make it stiff 
enough to knead. Knead for  hour. Cover c]osely, let 
iç rise till iç doubles its bulk; shape into loaves; let it 
rise again  the Fans; bake as directed in previous 
recipe. 
WH»LE WHEAT »R (RAHAM RE. 
1 pt. milk, scalded and coeled. I 2 tbsps, sugar. 
1 p. sait. I 5 or 6 cups whole wheat flour. 
2 cups white flour.  yeas cake or  cup yet. 
lix in the saine order as given in l:,revious recipes. 
Whole wheaç flour makes a softeï dough, consequently 
does hot require so much knea, ling, otherwise iç should 
be çreaçed the saine as oçher bread, allowig it a little 
longer time for baking; if o moist, a cupful of wlfite 
flour may be added. 
Steep  cup of loose hops in 1 çlua of boiling water, 
n a ante kettle, 5 minutes. Mx 1 cup of flour,  of 
a cup sugar and 1 tbsp. salt. Strain the hop li,luor and 
pour iç boiling in çhe flour mixture. Boil l minute, or 
till thick. When cooled add 1 cup of yeast. Covcr and 
seç in a wa place until foamy, which will be in 4 or 5 



66 DOIESTIG SCIEgCE. 

hours. Pour into stone jars, which should be not more 
than hall full, and keep in a cool place. (Three boiled 
potatoes lnay be mashed smoothly and added to this 
yeat if desired.) 

SAUCES AND MILK OUPS. 

WHITE SAUCE. 

(For t'egetables, Eggs, etc.) 

1 pt. milk. 2 tbsps, butter. 
4 (l.) tbsps, flour. ½ tsp. salt. 
 sp. vhite pepper. 
Heat the mil[: over hot water. Put the butter in a 
granite saucepan and stir tfll it melts, being careful hot 
to brown. Ad,l the d T flour, and stir quick]y tri! 
wcl] mixed. A, ld the milk gradua]]y, stirring carefully 
(especially from the sides) untfl perfect]y smooth. Let 
it boil until it thickens, then add salt and peppr. 
In using this sauce for creame01 oysters, add ½ tsp. of 
celery sait, a fcw grains of cayelme pepper, an,l a tsp. of 
lemon juice. 
])RAWN BUTTER SAUCE. 
1 pt. hot water or st,ck.  4 {l.) tbsps, flour. 
•  cup butter. ] ½ tsp. sMt. 
½ ssp. pepper. 
Put the butter in the saucepan; when melted m:ld the 
dry ftour, and mix well. A,I,I the hot water or stoc[: a 
little at a time, and stir rapidly till it thickens ; when 
smooth add the salt and pepper. Be careful fo have ail 



RECIPES--SkUCES AND .MILK SOUPS. (7 

sauc free fron lumps. ( Hard boiled eggs nay be added 
to this sauce for baked or boilcd fish. Two tbsps, of 
chopped 1oarsley may be added if parsley sauce is 
desired.) 

]ROWN AUCE. 

I pt. hot stock. 2 tbsps, minced onions. 
2 tbsps, butter. 4 tbsps, flour. 
•  tsp. sait. . ssp. i)epper. 
l tbsl0. Icmon juice. Caramel enough to color. 
Mince the onion aml fry it in the butter 5 minutes. 
carcful not fo burn it. When the butter is browne0l add 
the dry flour, and .tir wcll. Ad0l the hot stock a little 
af a rime ; stir rapi011y unt]l if thickens and is perfectly 
smooth. Add the salt and pepper. Simmer 5 minutes, 
and stran fo remove the onion. 

CARAMEL FOR C(»LORING NOUPS AND AUCES. 

Melt 1 cu l) of sugar with 1 tbsp. of water in a fTing- 
palL Stir mtil it becomes of a dark brow color Add 
1 cu l) of boiling water, smmer l0 mbmtcs, aml bottle 
when cool. This coloring is useful for many purposes, 
nd is more wholesomc than browncd butter. 

MOCK BISQUE SoUP. 

1 pt. stewed tomatoes. 
2 tbsps, flour. 
½ tsp. soda. 
1 tsp. salt. 

1 pt. mflk. 
2 tbsps, butter. 
 tsp. lepI)er. 

Reserve ½ cup of the milk, put the remaindcr on to 
cook in a stew-10an. Mix the flour with the c,ld lnilk, 



Ij DOMESTIC .C1ENCE. 

an,1 stir into the boiling milk. Cook for 10 minutes, 
then add the salt, pepper and butter. S¢ir the soda into 
the hot tomatoes and stir ½ minute, thên tub through a 
strainer. Add the strained tomatoes to ghe thiekened 
milk, and serve ag onee. 
POTATO SOUP. 

4 potatoes, medium size. 
2 tbsps, minced celer)'. 
2 tbsps, of flour. 
¼ tsp. of pepper. 
 tsp. mincd parsley. 

1½ pints of milk. 
4 tbsps, mineed onions. 
1 tsp. of salt. 
1 tbsp. of butter. 

Pare the potatoes, place on the tire in enough boiling 
water fo covêr, and cook for 30 minutes. Reserve - cup 
milk, put the remainder in the double boiler with the 
onion and celery and ]:,lace on the tire. Mix the cold 
milk with the flour and stir into the boiling milk. When 
the potatoes are cooked pour off the -ater, mash them 
until fine and light. Gra«ua]ly bêat into them the mi]k" 
now add salt, pepper and butter, and tub the soup 
through a sicve. Return to the tire and add thê minceJ 
parslcy; simmer for 5 mhmtes aud serve immediately. 
(The parsley may be omitted and celery salt substituted 
for the minced celery.) 

CELERY SouP. 

1 hea4 celery. 
1 pint milk. 
1 tbsp. butter. 
_ tsp. alt. 

1 pint vater. 
1 tbsp. chopped oniom 
2 tbsps, flour. 
 sp. pepper. 

Wash and scrape the celery, eut into  inch pieces, put 
if into the pint of boiling salted water and cook until 



.cxP.s--.¢;c,s. 69 

very sort. Iash in the water in which if was boiled. 
Cook the onion with the milk in a double boiler 10 
minutes and add if to the eelery. Rub all through a 
strainer and put on fo boil again. Mclt the butter in a 
saueepan, stir in the flour and eook until sm«»oth, but hot 
brown, then stir it into the boiling soup. A,ld the salt 
and pepper; sinmer 5 nfinutes and strain into the tureen. 
Serve very hot. 

EGGS. 
While eggs are nuttious and valuable as fool they 
should hot be used too freely, as they are a highly con- 
eentrated form of food. The albumen (white) of egg is 
one of the mosç valuable tissue builders. Mueh depends 
upon the manner i which they are eooked. Eggs fried 
in fat or hard boiled are very in, ligestible. Do hot use 
an egg until if has been laid some hours, as the white 
does hot beeome thiek till then and eannot be beaten 
stiff. Eggs should be kept in a cool dark i»laee, and 
handled earefully in or,ler to avoid nfixing the white 
and yolk, whieh causes the egg fo spoil quickly. 

]OILED EGG,. 

Have the water boiling in a saucepan. Put in the eggs 
and move to the back of the store n'lere the water will 
keep hot, about ]î5 or 180 F., for from 8 to 10 mbmtes. 
If the back of the store is too hot, more to the hearth. 
The white should be of a soft, jelly-like consistency, the 
yolks sort but not li,luid. An egg fo be cooked soif 
should never be cooked in boiling water. 



Cook eggs for °O miroites in water jus below tire 
boiling point. The yolk of an egg cooked 10 minutes is 
tough and in,ligestible; 20 minutes will make i dry and 
mealy, when itis ,ore easily penetrated by the gastric 
fluid. 

POACHED EGGS. 

Have a clean, shallow pan nearly full of salted and 
boiling water. Remove the scum and let the water just 
simmer. Break each eo'«, careful]y into a saucer and 
slip ibgent]y into the waer. Dip the water over if 
with the en,l of the spoon, and when a film has f,rmed 
over the yolk an«l the white is like a soft j,.lly, take up 
with a skimmer and place on a piece of neatly trimmed 
toast. This is the mos wholesome way of cooking 
for servig with haro or bacon. 

OMELET. 

Beat. the yolks of two eggs, add two t.bsps, of milk, 1 
ssp. of sait and ¼ of a ssp. of pepper. Beat the whites till 
stiffand dry. Cut and fohl them into the yolks till just 
covered, ttave a elean, smooth omèlet pan (or spider). 
When hot, tub well xvith a teaspoonful of butter; see 
that t.he butter is ail over the pan, tm'n in the olnelet 
and spread evenly on the pan. Cook until slightly 
browned underneath, bcing careful hot to let it bm'n ; set 
in a hot oven until dry on top. When dry thronghout, 
run a knife round the edge, tip the p:m to one si,le, fold 
the omelet and turn out on a hot platter. This may be 
tflstr çl Educatin, Ontario 
Historical Collection 



RECIPESEGGS. 71 

ruade by beating the whites and yolks together for a 
plain omelet. A little chopped parsiey, a little fine 
grated onion, a tbsp. or two of chopped ham, veal or 
chicken may be spread on the omelet béfore fol,]ing. 

CUP ÇUSTARDS. 

1 pt. of milk. 2 eggs. 
J cup of sugar. ½ ssp. grated nutmeg. 

]3eat the eggs until light, then add the sugar; beat 
again, add the milk and nutmeg, stir until the sugar is 
dissolved. Pour into custard cups, stand the cups in a 
pan of boiling water and then put the pan in the oven. 
]3ake until the custards are set, or until a knife may be 
slipped, into the centre withou anything a, lhering fo it. 
When donc,, take them out of the water and stand away 
fo cool. (This custard may be poured into a baking dish 
and baked iii a quick oven until firm lu the centre.) 

OILED CUSTARD. 
1 pt. of milk. 2 eggs. 
2 tbsps, sugar.  tsp. vanilla. 
Put the milk on in the double boiler, beat the sugar 
and yolks of eggs together until light, then stir them 
into the  milk; stir until if begns fo thicken, 
then take it fvm the tire; a,]d the vanilla alld stand 
aside to cool. When cool, pour into a glass dish. Boat 
the whites until stiff, a,ld three tbsps, of powdered 
sugar ,q-a, lually. Heap them on a dinner plate and 
stand in the oven a moment until slightly brown, then 
loosen from the plate, slip off gently on top of the cus- 
tard ; serve very cold. 



7 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

FRUIT. 

If people would on]y realize the value of fruit in its 
natural state, much of the time devoted to the prepara- 
tion of pies, pu,ldings, etc., would be saved. Ail un- 
cooked fruit should be thoroughly ripe and served fresh 
and cold. Sometimes fruit is more easily digested when 
the woody fibre has been softened by cooking than when 
in its natural state, therefore a few simple recipes for 
cooking ff'uit are given. 

APPLESAUCE. 

Pare, core and quarter 6 or 8 tart apples. $lake a 
syrup with x cup of sngar, - cup of water, and a little 
grated lemon peel. When boiling, a, ld the apples and 
cook carefully ti]l they are just tender, but hot broken. 
Remove them carefully, boil the syrup down a little and 
pour it over the apples. (For serving with roast goose, 
etc., cook the apples in a little water, mash until smooth, 
dd sugar to taste.) - 

CODDLED APPLES. 

Pare fart apples of uniform size; remove the cores 
without breaking the apples. Stand them in the botton 
of a ,n-anite ket.tle, sprinkle thickly with sugar, eover 
the bottom of the kettle with boiling water, eover elosely 
and allow the apples to steam on the back I,art of the 
store till tender. Lift earefully without breaking, pour 
the syrup over them an,l stand away to cool (delicious 
served with whipped eream). 



RECIPES--FRUIT. 73 
STEWOED PRUNES. 
Wash carefully and souk in water an hour before 
cooking, put them into a porcelain or granite kettle, 
cover with boiling wter and let them simmer until 
tender. A,ld a tbsp. of sugar for each pint of prunes, 
nd boil a few moments longer. 

CRANBERRIES. 
Put 1 pint of cranberrics i, a granite saucepan, 1 cup 
of sugar, 1 cup of water. After they begin to boil cook 
10 minutes, closcly covered. (This may be t)ressed 
through e sieve while hot, removing the skins, if desired 
for a mould.) 
STEWED RHUBARB. 
Wash thc rhubarb (if young and tender it will not be 
neeessary fo remove the skin), cut into pieces about 1 
ineh long. To every lb. of rhubarb allow 1 lb. of sugar. 
Put the rhubarb into a porcelain or granite kettle, eover 
with the sugar, and stand on the back part of the tire 
until the sugar melts. More forward, let simmer for a 
few minutes without stin'ing, tm it out carefully to 
{2OO1. 
BAKED PEARS. 
Take large, sweet pears, wipe them but do hOt remo'e 
the stems. Stand them in an earthen bking dish, pour 
around them a cup of boi|ing water, add 2 tbsps, sugar, 
cover with another dish and bake slowly until the pears 
are tender, basting occionally with the liquor. When 
done, stand away fo cool in the dish in which they were 
baked. When cold put them into  glass dish, pour the 
liquor over them and serve. 



7-[ I)OMESTIC CIENCE. 

]]AKED APPLES. 
Pare and cote, without breuking, tart aII)i)les. Put 
them into u shallow earthen dish, fill the cavities with 
sugr, ,ld water to cover the bottom of the di.h. Bake 
in  quick oven till sort, bsting oft,_,n vith the syrui). 
(Quinces may be baked in the s,une way. ) 

VEGETABLES. 

Vegctables shouid be use,l very frcely, as they contain 
saline substances which counteract the effect of too much 
meafi, and are the chier somme of mineral supply for the 
b,dy. In cooking vegetables, u common rule is to add 
salt, while cooking, fo all classes ,q-owing above ground 
(inc]uding onions), and to omit sali in the cooking of 
vcgetables q'owing un, lergromd. In cooking vegetables 
care must be taken to 1,reserve the flavor, and fo prevent 
the waste of mincral matter. 

CABBA(E. 
Cut t sma]] hen,] o[ ca])bage in quartcrs, soak in co]d 
water 1 hour, drain and shake d13-. R,-move tlte stalle, 
or hard I)art, and chop the remainder rathcr fine. Put it 
into  stew-pan with enough boiling water fo cover, and 
boil 20 minutes. Drain in u colander. Turn into a hot 
dish, and I)our over it cream sauce or a little melted 
butter, pei)i)er and salt. 

CAULIFLOWER. 
Pick off the outside leaves, soak in cohl salted water, 
toi) downwards, for 1 hour. Tie if round with a I)iece of 



RECIPES--VEGETA BLES. 75 

twine to prevent breaking. Cook in boiling salted water 
until tender, rcmove the string, tul into a bot dish with 
the top up, cover with cream sauce or drawn butter 
sauce. (When cold, it nmy be picked to pieces and served 
in a salad.) 

CELERY. 

Scrape clean and cut the stalks into 2-inch pieces: 
cook in salted water until tender, drain and cover with 
a white sauce. The sauce shoul,l be ruade with the water 
in which the celery bas been stewed. 

]]OILED ]EETS. 

Wash, but do not eut them, as that injures the color. 
Cook in boiling water until tender. When cooked put 
them into a pan of cold watr and rub off the skins. 
They may be cut in slices and served hot with pepper, 
butter and salt, or sliced, covred with vinegar, and 
served cold. They may be cut into dice and served as a 
alone or mixed with potatocs and other 

salad, either 
vegetables. 

tEA\'S (DRIED). 

Lima beans should be soaked in warm water over 
night. In the morning drain off this water and cover 
with fresh warm water. Two hours before neede,1 drain, 
cover with boiling water and boil 80 minutes; drain 
again, cover with fresh boiling water, and boil until 
tender. A,ld a teaspoonful of salt while they are boil- 
ing. When cooked drain them, add a little butter, 
pepper and sait, or a cream sauce. 



ASPARAGUS. 
Wah tlae sparaus well in cold wter, reject the 
tough parts, rie in t bunch or eut into pieces 1 inch long. 
Put if in  kettle, cover with boi]ing water, nd boil 
until tcudcr. Put if in a co]an,]er fo drain. Serve with 
melted butter, I»epper and sa|t, or with a, crea, m or drawn 
butter sauce. 
OSiOnS. 
Scald in boiling wa, ter, theu remove tlae skins. Put 
them la boiling salted water; when they bave boiled 10 
minutes, change the water. Boil until ten«lcr but hot 
until broken. Drain and serve with eithcr cream sauce 
or butter, p,îpper and sait. 
P« »TAT(»ES. 
Wash and scrub with a brush. If ol,1, soak in col,1 
v«ater aller paring. Put them in boiling water, when 
al»out half cooked a,ld a tbsp. of salt. Cook until sort 
but hot broken. Drain carefully. Expose the potatoes 
for a minuLe to acurrent of air, tlaen cover and place on 
the back of the store fo keêp hot, allowing the steam fo 
escape. 
RICE POTATOES. 
Press the cooked potatoes through  coarse stminer 
ito the dish in  hich they are fo be served. 
[ASHED POTATOES. 
To 1 pinb of bob boile,l pota.toes, a,ld 1 tbsp. butter. 
½ tsp. of salt,} ssp. of white pepper and hot milk or creara 
fo moisten. Mast in tire kettle in which they were 
boiled, best v«ith a fork until they are light and creamy. 
Turn lightly into a dish. 



RECI I'ESVEGETABLES. 77 

POTATo PUFFS. 
Prepare as for mashc,1 potatoes, addinff a |ittle chopped 
pm-zley or celery sait if the fltvor is likcd. Beat 2 eggs, 
yolks and whites separately. Stir the beatên whites in 
carefully, shape into smooth bal]s or cones, brush ]ightly 
with the beaten yolks, and bake in a moderately hot 
oven until brown. 

CREAMED POTATOES. 

Cut cold boiled potatoes into rhin slices. Put them 
in a shallow pan, cover with milk and cook until the 
potatoes bave absorbed nearly ail the milk. To 1 pint 
of potatoes, add 1 tbsp. of butter, ½ tsp. of sait,  ssp. of 
pepper and a little chopped parsley or onion. 

BAKED P« }TATOES. 

Select smooth potatoes of uniforln size, weush and scrub 
well. Bake in a hot oven about 45 minutes or until sort. 
Break the skin or puneture with a fork to let the stealn 
eseape and serve at once. This is the most wholesome 
method of eooking 1,otatoes, as the lnineral matter is 
retained. 
FRIED P, }TATOE. 

Pare, wash and eut into slices or quarters. Soak iu 
cold salted water, drain and dry between towels. Have 
sufficient fat in a kettle fo more than cover the potatoes. 
When if is very hot drop the potatoes in, a few af a 
rime, so as not ix) reduce the heat of the fat too quickly. 
When brown, which should be in about 4 or 5 minutes 
for quarters and about 2 milmt.s if sliced, drain and 
sprinkle with salt. 



î8 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

TOiArOES (RAW). 
Seald and peel sometime before usiug, place on iee. 
and serve with salt, sugar and vinegar, or with a salaud 
dressing. 
CALLOPED TOMATOES. 
Scahl and peel as many tomatoes as required. Butter 
a deep dish and sprinkle with fine bread or cracker 
crmnbs, then a |ayer of sliced tomato, over this sprinkle 
a little salt, pcpper and sugar; then add a layer of bread 
crumbs, another of tomatoes, sprinkle again with salt, 
pepper and sugar : put bread crumbs on the top, moisten 
with a little melted butter, and bake until brown. 

TEWED TOMATOES. 

Pour boiling water over the tomatoes, remove the 
skins and the hard green stem, cul iuto quarters or slices 
an,1 stew in a granite kettle until the pulp is soft, add 
sait, pel)per, butter and a little sugar if desired. If too 
thil the t,»,nato may be flfickeled with crumbs or corn- 
starch wet in a little cold water. 

PINACH. 

lick over carefu)ly, discardingall decayed leaves. 
Wash thol'oug]dy, then place in a pari of cold water, let 
stand for a few minutes. Drain and put in a large 
kettle with .iust enough water fo keep iL from burning. 
Cook very slowly until tender. Drain and chop fine, add 
1 tbsp. of butter, a tsp. of salt, a ssp. of pepper. It may be 
served on toast(hot) or garnished with hard boiled egg's. 



RECIPES--VEGETABLES. 79 

CARROTS AND TURNIPS. 

Carrots as a vegetable for the table are more palatal)le 
when young and tender. They should be washed and 
scraped, boiled until tender, and served with butter, 
pcpper and salt or a white sauce. Turnips contain little 
nutriment; having no starch, they are very suitable for 
cating with potatoea They rt«luire more salt than anv 
other vegetable, and should be served with fat meat. 
corned beef, roast pork or mutton. Tunils shoul,l be 
washed, pared, cut into slices or strips, boiled until 
tender. Drain, mash and season with pepper and sa]t. 

PEAS (GREEX). 
Wash the pods, which should be green, crisp and 
plump, before shelling, then the peas will hot require 
washing. Put the peas into a strainer or colander and 
shake out all the fine particles. ]oil until tender. 
When nearly done add the salt. Use little water in 
cooking, when they may be served without draining" 
season with a little butter, pepper and salt. If drained, 
serve eiiher d5 with butter, pepper and salt, or with a 
white sauce. 
GREEN SWEET ÇORN. 
Remove the husk and silky fibre, cover with boiling 
water (the flavor is improved by adding a few of the 
clean inner husks) and cook, if young and tender, from 
l0 fo 15 minutes. Try a lernel and take up the corn 
cm soou as the milk has thickened and the raw faste 
is dcstroyed. 



80 DOMESTIC ,SCIENCE. 

SALADS. 

FRENCH DRESSING. 
3 tbsps, of olive oil. I ½ SSl,. of pepper or speck of 
 tsp. of salt. ] cayenne. 
I tbsp. vinegar. 
Mix these ingrèdicnts together and S-l'Ve. This makes 
 particularly good dressing 5»r lettuce or vegetable 
sala,ls. 

,"JA LA D DRESSING. 

the dressing.) 
[AYONNAISE 
½1,t. of olive oil. 
1 tsp. mustard. 
 tsp. sal. 
Yolks of 2 uncooked eggs. 

DRESSING. 
I tbsp. lemon juice. 
I tbsp. vinegar. 
½ tsp. sugar. 
A speck of cayenne. 

Put the yolks of the eggs into a cold bowl, stir in the 
,lry ingredients, beat well, using a silver or small wooden 
spoon. Then add the oil, drop by drop. When the mix- 

½ cup vinegar. 2 eggs. 
1 tbsp. sugar. ½ tsp. mustard. 
½ tsp. sait. A speck of cayenne pepper. 
½ cup cream. 
Beat the eggs well, mix the sugar, salt, mustard and 
pepper together, add to the beaten eggs, then add the 
vinegar. Place the saucepan on the range in a pari of 
boiling water. Stir constantly until the dressing be- 
cornes thick and light. Take from the tire and turn into 
a cold bowl at once fo prevent curdling. Beat thc cream 
to a thick froth and stir it into the cold dressing. (When 
cream is not available use the saine quantity of milk, 
previously thickened fo the consistency of cream with a 
little cornstarch, add a tsp. of butter; when cold, add to 



RECIPES--SALADS. 

tm'e gets so thick that itis difficult to stir, add a few 
drops of the vinegr to rhin it. Continue stirring in the 
oil and vinegar alternately until all are used, when if 
should be very thick; add the lemon juice Iast and beat 
for a fcw minutes longer; a cupful of whipped crcam 
may be stirred into this dressing belote using. (The 
following rules must be observed in order fo insure 
success: (1)fo beat the yolks and dry ingredients until 
thick; (2) to ad.1 the oil only in drops af first; (3) 
always beat or stir in one direction, reversing the motion 
is apt to curdle th drcssing.) 

LETTUCE ALAD. 

Choose cri.p, fresh lettuce, wash clean, let it remain 
for a little time in c«»ld or ice water, «|l'ain thoroughly, 
break or tear the h_,aves into convenient pieces, dress 
with a Freneh or cooked dressing ; serve at, once, cold. 

POTATO ALAD. 
1 pt. cold boiled potatoes. 1 t.p. finely chopped onion. 
½ tsp. salt. 1 sp. pepper. 
½ cup cooked dressing. Or the French dressing, as given. 
Cut the potatoes into pieces about the size of dice, mix 
the seasonin wiCh the potatoes, tuu into a dish in 
alternate layers of potatoes and dressing, having a little 
dressing on top. Ganfish with parsley, and allow fo 
stand ai least an hour in a cold place before serving, so 
that the potatoes may absorb the scasoning. (Cold boilcd 
beets cut into cubes umy be addcd in alternate ]ayers 
with the_ potatoes in this recipe, using a little more 
dressing.) 
6 



TOMATO SALAD. 
Peel the tomatoes (without scalding) and put them on 
ice until very cold, have crisp leaves of lettuce which 
have been washed and dried. When ready to serve, cut 
the tomatoes in halves, place one-half on a leaf of lettuce 
(the curly leaves being the best), on this put a tbsp. of 
mayonnaise or cooked dressing, and serve immediately. 

CABBAGE ALAD. 
Cabbage or celery may be use«l as a salad by cutting 
rather fine, allowing it fo get cold and crisp, and serving 
with a cooked or French dressing. Indeed almost any 
vegetable may be used for a salad. Strig beans, 
asparagus, cauliflower, which hure bee cooked, arc 
suitble for sala,l, either alone or in combinatio with 
asturtium, cress, hard boiled e«s etc. 

CHICKEN .A LAD. 

One pint each of col,1 boiled ,,r roastc, l chicken an,l 
celery. Cut the chicken into ¼-inch dice, scrape, wash 
and cut the celer, into dice, put the ccle in a napkin 
and lay on the ice for 10 or ]' minutes; season the 
chickea with vinegar, salt, pepper an,1 oil (or the Freuch 
dressing-oil may be omitted if the flavor is not aoweeable, 
substituting cream or mclted buttera. Add the celery to 
the seasoned chicken, add half the dresshg (using either 
a cooked or nmyommise), heap in a dish, add the re- 
maindc of the dresing, garnish with the tiny bleached 
celerv le.ves or small curly lttuce leaves. (A few cal0ers 
and a haM boiled egg may be used as . garnish if 
desired.) 



RECIPES--CEREALS. 83 

In summer the chicken may be served on a tender 
lettuce leaf, adding a spoonful of dressng, and serving 
very cold. 
FRUIT SALAD. 
4 oranges. [ 4 bananas. 
1 cup water. I Juice of 2 lemons. 
; package gelatine. 1 . cup sugar. 
Dissolve the gelatine in the water, add the sugar and 
lcmon juice, strain and pour over the orangcs and 
bananas, which have been peeled and sliced and placed in 
alternate layers in a mould. Set away fo cool. When 
needed, turn out and serve. Gmish with Malaga 
grapes, chcrries, currants, or any suitable fruit. 

CEREALS. 

All cereals require thorough cooking, because of the 
starch in them, also to softn the woody fibre. £No 
matter what the cereal product may be, it should be 
cooked hot less than three-quarters of an hour, and better 
if cooked longer. 

(ATMEAL P« )RRIDGE. 
1 pt. of boiling water. [ ½ tsp. salt. 
 cup of oatmeal. 
]e sure fo have the water boiling. Sprinkle in the 
oatmeal slowly, stirring all the time. Ad«l the salt, and 
more back or set in a vessel of boiling wat;.r where t 
wll cook gently for 1 hour. Do not star the porri,lge 
after the first 5 minutes. 
All porridge (or mush) is ruade on the saine principle. 



J DOMESTIC S¢2IENCE. 

CRACKEI) WHEAT 
Should be cooked at ]east 4 or 5 hours. 

CORNMEAL 
Should be cooke,l an hour or more. 

I) ICE. 
Wash 1 cup of lace. Have 2 quarts of water, with l 
tbsp. sait, boiling rapidly. Sprinkle in the lace gradu- 
ally, when you have it ail in cover the kettle and boil 20 
minutes. If too thick add a little boiling water. Test 
the grains, and the moment thêy are sort, and before the 
starch begins fo cloud the water, pour into a colander to 
drain. Stand it5 in the oven a few minutes to dry, 
leaving the door open. Turn carefully into a heated 
dish and serve without a cover. (Do not stir the rice 
while coking ) 
I{ICE CR(}QUETTES. 
I pint of milk. ½ cup of rice. 
4 (l. } tbsps, of sugar.  tsp. vanilla. 
½ cup raisins. Yolks of two eggs. 
Wash the lace and put it into the boiling milk in a 
double boiler. Cook mtil very thick; add the yolks of 
the eggs and the sugar, beat thoroughly. Take from the 
tire, add the vanilla and the fruit, which has been well 
floured. Turn out on a dish to cool, vhen cold form in 
pyramids or cylinders" dip first in beaten e« then in 
fine bread crumbs and fry in deep, boiling fat. Put a 
little jelly on the top of each croquette, dust the whole 
with powdcred sugar, and serve with vanilla sauce or 
cream and sugar. 



RECIPES--MACARONI. 5 

BAKED 1 ICE. 
Wash .x., cup of rice, turn into  buttered pudding dish, 
add 2 tbsps, sugar, q'ate ¼ of a small nutmeg, add 1 qt. of 
milk, bake slowly for at least l - hour. 
FARINA. 
1 pit of milk. I 3 level tbsps, of fal'iiaa. 
Put the nfilk in the double boiler, when the milk boils 
add the salt, then sprinkle in the farina, stirring ail the 
while; beat the mixture well and cook for 30 minutes. 
Serve with cream and sugar. (This may be ruade into a 
pudding by adding an egg, 2 tbsps, sugar,  tsp. valSlla, 
baking in the oven until brovn.) 

MACARONI. 
Macaroni is quite as valuable as bread for food, and 
shoul,l be used very freely. 
«»ILED 3I CARONI. 
13reak the macar«mi in pieces abolit 2 inches log. 
Have boiling water, a,l«l  tsp. of sait; throw in the 
macaroni and boil rai,idly 30 minutes, put it into a 
colander to drain, return to the kettle, tub  tbsp. of 
butternd flour together until smooth, add either milk 
or water until the sauce is as thick as rich cream. Cook 
if  ïew minutes before pouring over the macaroni, and 
serve (add sait fo taste). 
IACAR(}NI WITH "I'(»3IATO ,AUCE. 
¼ lb. macaroni. I 1 tbsp. flour. 
1 tbsp. butter. [ 1 cup stewed tomaoes. 
Sait and pepper to tazte. 



SG DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

Hold the long sticks of macaroni in the hand ; put the 
end into boîling sa]ted water, as it softens bond and coil 
in the water B ithouL breakiug. Boil rapidly 20 minutes. 
When done put it in a colartder to draitt. Put the butter 
in a saucepan to melt, add fo if the flour, mLx until 
smooth, then add the tomatoes (which bave been strain- 
e,l), stir carefully until iL boils. :Pour over the hot 
macaroni and serve aL ouce. 

)IACARONI AND CHEESE. 
 lb. of macaroni. {  pt. milk. 
 lb. grated cheese. I 1 tsp. butter. 
,Salt and white pcpper to faste. 
Broak the macaroni in pieces about 3 inches long. 
Put it iuto I)lenty of boiling watur. A,ld 1 tsi). salt and 
boil rapidly 25 minutes; drain, throw into cold water ix) 
blanch for l0 minutes. Put the milk into the double 
boiler, add fo iV the butter, then the nmcaroni w],ich has 
becn drained, and cheese ; stir until heated, ad,1 the sait 
and i,el,ler, and serve. (The macaroni may be 191aced in 
a baking dish in alternate layers with the cheese, sprin- 
kling each laycr xvith I)ei)per and salt, pouring the milk 
over the toi), cutting the butter in sn,all bits distributed 
,ver the top, and bake until brown in a moderately quick 
ox'ell.) 

CHEESE. 

CttEESE SOUFFLE. 

lb. of cheese. 
ssp. of soda. 
A speck of cayenne. 
tbsps, flour. 

½ cup of railk. 
1 tsp. mustard. 
2 eggs. 
2 tbsps, butter. 



RECIPES--BEVERAGES. 87 

Put the butter in a saucepan, when melted stir in the 
flour, add the mi]k slow]y, then the sa]t, mustar,1 and 
cayenne, which bave been mixed together. Add the 
yolks of the e,,s which have been well beaten, hen th 
grated cheese ; stir all together, lift from the tire and set 
away to cool. When cold, add the stiff beaten whites, 
turn into a buttered dish and bake 25 or 30 minutes. 
Serve immediately. 

WELSH PtAREBIT. 
¼ lb. cheese. ¼ cup creara or milk. 
1 tsp. mustard. _ tsp. sait. 
A speck of cayenae. 1 egg. 
1 tsp. butter. 
Grate the cheese, put it with the milk in the d«mble 
boiler. While this is hcating, make some toast. Mix the 
mustard, salt an,] pepp«-r, add the egg and beat wcll. 
When the cheese bas mclted, stir in the egg and butter, 
and cook about two minutes, or until it thickens a little, 
but do not let it cure. Pour it over the hot toast and 
serve at once. 

BEVERAGES. 

In making tea, the following rules should be observed. 
The watcr should be freshly boiled. The teapot, which 
should be of eaf'then or china (never of tin), shoul,1 be 
scalded and heated before putting in the tea. Pour on 
the boiling water and cover closely, and let stand for 
3 or 4 minutes before using. 'ever, under any circum- 



88 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

stances, allow tea fo boil. The usual proportion is a 
small teaspoonful of tea to 1 cup of boi]ing water, but 
this is too strong for general use. 
CO:FEE. 
Coffee lnay be ruade in various ways; by tiltering, 
clarifyingwith an egg, or ruade with cold water. A 
common rule for lnaking coti:e is as follows: 1 haping 
tbsp. groun,1 cofle to 2 cups of frcshly boiling xvatcr, 1 
egg shcl]. Scald the coflbe-pot, put in the coflbe and the 
egg shll, ad,1 the boiling watr, cover and boil just 3 
milmtes. B,.fore serving, a,l,l a tbsp. of col,] watcr; let 
stand f,»r a few minutes bcf,»rc using. 
ÇOFFEE 3[ADE WlTtt AN EGG. 
1 egg is sufficient to clear 1 cup of gl'ound coffee ; if a 
smaller quantity be dcsired, hall the e,tt may be used. 
A,ld ½ eup eold water fo the portion of egg fo be use, l. 
and ½ eup of gn',mn,l eoffee. Beat well, put if in the 
eoffee-pot, add 1 q. of b,)iling water, an, l l»)il 3 minutes. 
3I«»ve baek where if will keep hot, but hot boil, for 10 
minutes. Pour out a little and pour if baek again fo 
elear the si»out before serving. 
Cocoa. 
I 1,t of milk. I 2 ¢1. tsp. of cocon. 
3 tbsps, of water. 
Put the mi]k in the double boilcr and set on the tire, 
mix the cocoa fo  smooth paste witll  the cold water. 
When the milk boils, add the cocoa and boil for 1 
minute. Serve very hot. If lnore water and less milk 
be used, allow  little more cocoa. 



RECIPES--SOUPS. 89 

SOUPS. 

Soups may be divided into two classes, soup made with 
stock, and with milk. As soup should form part of 
the regular daily diet, and may be ruade from the 
cheaper materials, it is absolutely necessary that every 
housekeeper should understand the art of nmking it 
l»roperly. 
In the first place if is well to know what may be used 
in the process of soup making. The first an«l most im- 
portant step is to prepare the stock. For this purpose 
h,zve a large eal'then bowl or "catch all," as some teachers 
call it. Into this put all the bones, trimmings, bits of 
steak or chop and gravy which hts been h'ft over. Keep 
in a cold place. When needed, cover with col,1 water and 
sinmmr 4 or 5 hours; strain and set away fo cool. When 
col,l, remove the fat wMch will bave forme,1 a solid coat- 
ing on the top. The stock is now ready for use. By 
saving the remains of vegetables cooked f,,r the table, 
t}e outer stocks of celer3, a hard boiled e¢,,,, etc., a very 
palatable and nutritious soup may be ma«le at a trifling 
co,t. In familles where large quantities of meat are 
used, there should be sufflcient mateial without 
buying meat for soup. If is noç necessary to bave all 
the ingredients mentioned in some recipes in order fo 
secure satisfactory results. It will, however, be necessar 3- 
to understand soup flavorings, so as to know which ones 
may be left out. Stock ruade from the shin of beef, or 
from the cheaper piec:s which contain the coaler fibre 
and gristle, require long, slow cookin/g (sec Metho, ls). 
Never soak meat in water bcfore cooking in any form. 
Wipe carefully with a damp cloth bef,,re cutting or pre- 



90 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

paring for use. For soup break or saw the bones into 
small pieces, and for each pound of meat and bone allow 
1 qt. of col«l water. Cover the kettle closely and let it 
heat slowly until it reaches the simmcring point, when 
it should be moved back and kept at that deq'ee for 
several hours. Soup should never be allowed to boil 
hard. The scum which rises fo the surface is the albu- 
1,mn an,l juices of the meat, and should not be skimmed 
off: If the kettle is clean, and all impurities removed from 
the meat, there will hot be anything objectionable in the 
scun Stock must always be allowed to reman until 
cold, so that the ftt may be removed before using. 
A strong, greasy soup is rarely relished, and is one of 
the principal reasons why so many people «lis]ike this 
valuable article of diet. I)o hot add sait to the meat 
which is bcing prepared for stock until a few minutes 
before removing from the tire. Salt hardens the water 
if added at first and makes the tissues more difficult to 
dissolve. Stock  may be kept for severa| davs by occasion- 
ally brindng it to the boiling point. This is not neces- 
sary in wintr if it is kept in a cold place. 

VEGETABLE SOUP. 

If 

1 qt. stock. 1 ssp. pepper. 
 cup each chopped turnil»  cup each of onion, carrot. 
and cabbage, celery (chopped). 
l tsp. sugar. 1½ tsp. salt. 
all these vegetables are hot available, a little 

macaroni, rice or barley may be added. Chop all the 
ve(jetables very fine, cabbage or onions should be par- 
boiled 5 minutes, drain carefully. Put ail the vegetables 
together, cover with 1 qt. of water and simmer until 



RECIPES--SOUPS. 91 

tender, then add the sck, the seasoning, and allow it fo 
simmer about 10 minutes. Serve without straining. 

1 pt. of cannêd or 
tomatoes. 
½ tsp. sait. 
1 tsp. sugar. 
1 tbsp. butter. 

Tc)MATO SOUP. 

stewed 

2 whole cloves or ½ bay leaf. 
1 pt. of atock. 
½ ssp. pepper. 
i tbsp. mincêd oni,,n. 
1 tbsp. flour or cornstarch. 

1 large Spanish onion. 
1 qt. stock. 
1 tbsp. flour. 

A speck of cayenne may be added if desired. 
Put the tomato and stock iii a saucepan and t on the 
tire. Cook the vegetables in the butter for 15 minutes; 
then press out the buttor and put the vegetables in the 
sou& Int.o the butter remaining in the pan put the 
flour and stir until smooth, then add to the sou& Allow 
all to simmer for 20 minutes ; strain and serve. 
PLIT PEA 
1 pt. of split peas. [ 1 qt. of stock. 
1½ qt. of boiling water. [ Sait and pepper to tastê. 
Wash the peas in cold water (rejecting those which 
float) and soak them over night. In the morning ,h'ain 
the water off and cover them again with 1 qt. of the 
boiling watr. Boil until tender, about 1 hour. Now 
add the stock and 1 pt. of the boiling water. Press the 
whole through a sieve; wash the soup kettle, retm3 the 
soup, boil up once, add salt and pepper and serve with 
croutons. Dried pea soup may be ln«de in exactly the 
saine manner, using 1 pt. of dried peas instea, l of the 
split ones. 
ONION SOUP. 
] 2 tbsps, butter. 
Sait and pepper to tastê. 



92 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

Peel and chop the onion. Put the butter in a frying- 
prm, a,l,1 tbe onion, and stir until a nice brown. Put 
the stock on to boil. Skim the onions out of the butter 
and ad,1 them fo the sck Stir 1 tbsp. of flour into 
the remaining butter, thin with a little of the stock, put 
all together, an,| simmcr for 20 minutes. Add salt and 
pepper, and it is réady to sérve. 

IACARONI 
1 qt. clear soup. I 5 sticks mcaroni. 
l tsp. sait. 
I 
Break the macaroni into small pieces and throv if 
into 1 quarL of t»Aling ,,rater containing the tsp. of 
sait. Let iL boil uncoerèd 25 minutès. Drain off the 
watér and add tbe macaroni to the hot stock, cover and 
cook slowly for 10 o," 15 minutes. A little more season- 
ing may be ad,le,1 if desire,1. 

1 pt. oysters. 
½ pt. cold water. 
 tsp. pepper. 
Salt to taste. 

( }YSTER « 

1 pt. milk. 
2 (I.) tbsps, flour. 
2 tbsps, butter. 

Put a strainer over a bowl and turn the oysters into 
it. Pour the water over the oysters and stir with a 
spoon until all the liquid bas passed through the strainer. 
Reserve ½ cup of the milk, pouring the remainder into 
the double boiler, set if on the tire. Put the oyster 
liquor in a stewpan, and heat slowly. Mix the cold milk 
with the flour, and stirring into the boiling milk; cook 
for 10 minutes. When the oyster liquor boils, skim it 
When the flour and milk have cooked for 10 minutes, 
add the oysters, butter, salt, pepper and oyster liquor. 



RECIPES--SOUPS. 93 

Cook until the oysters curl on the edge and are plump. 
Serve at once. 

BEAN ,Soue (WITHOUT STOCKS. 
1 qt. dried white beans. I 2 qts. water. 
1 large tbsp. butter. [ Sait and pepper fo taste. 
Wash the beans, cover them with water, and soak 
over night. Next morfing drain, put them on fo boil 
with 2 quarts of fresh cold water. As soon as they corne 
to a boil drain this water off and throw if away. Cover 
again with 2 quarts of fresh boiling water, add I ssI). of 
soda, and boil until sort. Press the beans through a 
sieve, return to the kettle, and if too thick add enough 
boiling water fo make the soup about the consistency of 
cream. Ad,l the salt, pepper and butter, and serve. 
3[inced onion, carrot, or celery frie,1 in a little butter or 

dripping, m,d ad,led to this soup before straining, 
implx)ves the flavor.) 

2 lbs. lean beef. 
1 small onion. 
A sprig of parsley. 
1 qt. cold water. 

]OUILLON. 
1 stalk celery, or ½ tsp. celery 
seed. 
1 bay leaf. 

Remove ail the fat and chop the meat very fine. Put 
it into the soup kettle with the water, bay leaf, parsley, 
onion and celery. Cover the kettle closely and place it 
in the back part of the range for 2 hours. The:l luove it 
over and let it corne to a boil; skim at the fit'st boil. 
More back and simmer gently for 4 hom's. Strain, 
return to the kettle, add salt and pepper. Beat the 
white of one egg with ½ cup of cold water until 
thoroughly mixed. Wash Lhe egg shell, mash it and add 



fo the white. Now add the white, shell and water to 
the boili/lg bouillon ; let it boil hard for l0 minutes, then 
throw in ½ cup of cold water and boil 5 minutes lo/lger. 
Take the kettle off the tire, strain through a flannel bag, 
tdd salt to taste, and color with caramel. (Ste recipe for 
cartmel.) This is an excellent preparation for invalids. 

FISH. 

Fish is an invalutible article of food. If provides 
variety in diet, md while lcss stimulating than meat, is 
usually more easily digcsted. Fish shold be perfectly 
fresh and thoroughly o»oked. The most wholesome as 
wcl as the most palatal»le methods for cooking fish are 
broiling and baking. The tle.h of fresh fish is firm ad 
will/lot rctain the imprcss of the finger if pressed into it. 
The eyes shou]d be bright and g]assy, the gills red and 
fu]l of bloo,1. Fish shoul,1 be clcane,1 as soon as possible 
and thoroughly wipcd with a cloth wet in salt water, and 
shouhl be kept in a cool place. Do /lot put it near other 
food such as milk, butter, etc., as they wi]l absorb the 
odor. 
]ROILED FISH. 
Rub  double broilr we]l with  piece of suet before 
putting in the fish. Lay the fish fiat so that the flesh 
side will be cxposed on one side of the broiler a/ld the 
skin on the other. Broil carcfully, as the skin side 
burns very quickly. A fish weighi/lg 3 lbs. will take 
about 25 or 30 minutes fo broi]. When cooked st)rinkle 
with sa] and pepper, and serve very hot. 



RECIPES--FISH. 95 

BAKED FISH. 
1 cup cracker or bread crumbs. 1 tsp. chopped parsley. 
1 ssp. salt. I ssp. pepper. 
1 tsp. chopped onion.  cup melted butter or dripping. 
Clean, wipe and di T the fish, rub with salt; fill with 
stuffing and sew or tic carefully. Rub ail over with 
butter (or dripping), salt and pepper, dredge with flour, 
put it into a hot oven; baste when the flour is brown, 
and often afterwards. Remove carefully from the pan 
and place upon a hot platter. 
SCALLOPED FlStt. 
Pick over carefully any renmants of cold boiled or 
baked fish, put into a shallow dish in alternate layers 
with bread crumbs and cream sauce. Cover with crumbs 
and bake till brown. 

ALT FISH ]ALLS. 
1 cup salt fish. 1 pint potatoes. 
1 tsp. butter. 1 egg, well beaten. 
 ssp. pepper. M,»re sait if needed. 
Wash the fish, pick in pieces and free from bones. 
Pare the potatoes an,l cut in quarters. Put the potatoes 
and fish in a stewl,an and cover with boiling water. 
Boil until the potatoes are tender Drain off ail the 
water; mash and beat the fish and pot,toes till very 
light. Add the butter al,d pepper, and when slightly 
cooled add the eg. Lift in a tbsp. and drop into 
smoking hot fat 1 n,inute, drain on brown paper; they 
may be formed into halls and browned in a very hot 
oven. 



96 DOMESTIC CIENCE. 

MEAT. 
(Sec Amlysis, Ch«p. V). 
Au meat is composed of several substances, iïbrine, 
albumen, gelatin, fat and the juices, it is necessary fo 
mdcrstand the various methods of cooking in order t 
secure the besç results. Meat has its season as well as 
n,a,y other foods. Pork is better in autumn and 
wintr ; veal in the spring and summer ; fowl in autumn 
avl winter; lamb in the summer and autumn; ,,utton 
a,d beef l,,ay be used any time. Ment sl,ould hot be 
allowe,1 to remain in the paper in wh|ch it cornes from 
,mrket, as it absorbs the juices and il,jures the flavor. 
Wipe all over with a clean wet cloth. Examine carefully, 
rcmove any tai,ted or unclean portions and keep in a 
clean, cool place until requ]red. Good beef should be a 
brigt red color, well mixed with fat, and a layer of fat 
on the outside; the suet should be dry and crumble 
easily. (Sec meaç diagrams for differeat cuts.) Mutton 
shou],l bave an abundance of clear, wh|te fat, the flesh 
finWgrained and a bright red color. Tl,e fat of veal 
shouhl be cler and wh|te, the lean pink, and should 
always be thoroughly cooked. Pork is more indigestiblc 
when fresh than when cured, as in bacon and haro. 
Fresh pork should be firm, the fat wh|te, the lean a pale 
ROXST OF BEEF. 
Wipe, frira, and rie or skewer into shape the eut for 
roasting. If there be a large piece of the flank, eut it off 
and use for soups or stews. If you wish o toast if, turn 
it un,lerneath and fasten with a skewer. Lay the meat 
on a rack in a pan, and dredge al] over with flour. Put 



RECIPESMEAT. 97 

on the top of a rost 2 or 3 tbsps, of dripping or pieces 
of the fat; put if in a very hot oven af first. After the 
outside has beeome seared, check off the heat and allow 
to eook slowly, basting frequently. (Sec rime table for 
baking.) 
]ROILED STEAK. 
Trim the steak free from all suet (save all trilnmings 
for stews or the stock pot). Put the neat plate to warin, 
grease the broilcr with a little of the fat. See that the 
tire is clear. Put the steak on the hot broiler and place 
if over the tire, turning every 10 seconds. It will take 
about 8 minutes if the steak is 1 inch thick When 
done, place if on the hot plate, dredge if with sait and 
pepper; turn over and season the other side. Serve 
immediately. 
IAN-]ROILED STEAK. 
When the tire is hOt suitable f,,r broiling, heat the 
frying pan until smokilg hot; trim the steak as for 
broiling, place firmly on the hot pn, turn frequently as 
in broiling, with a broad knife or pancake turner ; never 
insert a fork, as if allows the juice to escape. It will 
cook in 10 minutes. Season, and serve the saine as 
broiled steak. If a gravy is dcsired, fry a little of the 
suet and trimmings in the pan--after the steak has 
been removed--until brown, lift out the ment or suet, 
ad,l 1 tbsp. of flour, stir until brown, add pepper and salt 
to taste, then add 1 teacup of boiling water. Cook for 
2 or 3 minutes and strain over the steak. 

HAMBURG STEAK. 

1 lb. of steak from the upper side of the round, or any 
piece of lean beef free from gristle ; chop very fine, add 
7 



98 DO,IESTIC SCIENCE. 

1 tbsp. of onion juice (or finely minced onion), ½ tsp. salt, 
½ ssp. black pepper, mix well together; dip the hands in 
cold water, take 2 tbsps, of the mixture and form with 
the hands into small round cakes. Hve the frying pan 
very hot, put in 2 tbsps, of dripping; when hot, put in 
the steaks, brown on both sidesr they may be pan- 
broiled. Place them on a hot dish, add a tbsp. of flour 
to the faç rem:dning in the ptn, mix until smooth and 
brown; add a cupful of boilig water, stir until it 
boils, add pcI, l»er ad salt fo taste, and pour over the 
steak. 

]-EEF TEW WITH DUMFLINGS. 

2 lbs. of lcan beef (cheaper cuts). Cut into pieces 
about 1 inch square, dredge with fl«ur. Put 2 tbsps. 
of dripping into a frying pan ; as soon as if is very hot 
put in the meat und shake or stir until nicely browned. 
Skim out the meat and put it in a saucepan. Add 1 
tbsp. of fl,ur fo the dripping remaining in the pan, mix 
and add 1 quart of boiling water; stir over the tire until 
if boils, then strain if over the meat; add one small 
onion, pepper and salt to faste. Cover the saucepan 
closely and let if simnl.r for 2 hours. M«,ke the dump- 
lings loy sifting 1 I)iut of fiour, to which has been added 
2 tsps. baking powder. A, hl ¼ tsp. salt and enough milk 
fo make a sort d,ugh. Lift the dough in spoonfuls, 
placing thêm over the meat, cover quickly and let boil 
l0 minutes. Do n,,t uncov,.r the saucepan while the 
dumplings are cooking or they will fall immediately. 
Be careful not fo allow the stew fo burn while the 
dumplings are cooking. 



RECIPES--IIEAT. 99 

POT ROAST. 
Trim off the rough parts of a brisket of beef or any of 
the cheaper cuts. Place it in a kettle over a good tire; 
brown on one side, then turn and brown on the other; 
add 1 pint of boiling water, cover closely and simmer, 
allowinff 20 miroites fo evry pound. Add pepper and 
salt when the meat is nearly donc. 
[RAISED BEEF. 
From 4 to 6 lbs. of beef from the lower part of the 
round or rump. Tqm and tub well with sait, pepper 
and tour. Chop 2 small oui,ms and fT until light 
brown in pork fat or dril»ping; skim them out and put 
them into the pan in which the me.af is fo be braised, 
flmn brown the meat ail over, a, lding more fat if nee, led 
(this may be donc in a very hot ovcn). Put the meat 
into the pan, on skewers to keep it fr«m sticking, with 
the onions aroun, l it. A,hl 1 qt. of boiling water, cover 
closely, puttiug a brick or heavy weight on the cover to 
keep it down, and coek in  mo, lcrate oven 4 hours, 
bting ocsioually. Turn once and add more water as 
it evaporates, so as to lmve 1 pt. left for gravy. When 
nder take up fle meat, renmve the fat, a,hl more sait 
and pepper, and if likcd, a little lcm,,n juice or tomato 
may be added. Thicken with 2 tbsl»S, of flour wct in a 
little cold water. Ck 10 minutes and pour the gravy 
over the meat. Any tough meat may be cooked in this 
HASH. 
Take auy pieces left of  cold ast, steaks or stews, 
chop vevy fine; take 1 tbsp. butr or dripping, 1 tbsp. of 
tour, stir together in  hot frying pn, when brown dd 



I00 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

1 cup boiling water ; add 1 tbsp. chopped onion, pepper 
and salt fo faste, let simmer for 10 minutes, then add the 
meat, stir until heated thoroughly and serve on toast. 
COI¢XED BEEF «)R SAUSAGE HASH. 
1 pi. hasheel corn beef or 8ausage. I pi. of hashed laotatea. 
1 tsp. sait.  tsp. pepper. 
l tl»sp, butter or dril0ping.  cup of milk. 
(,)mit the milk if aausage is used). 
Mix the potato and meat, season with the pepper and 
salt, add the milk and stir lightly. Put the butter or 
dripping hto a h,t frying pan, when ,nelted put in the 
hash, spread if lightly a,l evenly, but do hot stir it. 
Cover the pan and set where the hsh will cook slowly 
for 10 or 15 minutes. More over fo a botter part of the 
stove and let if remain until a rich, brown crust bas 
formed on the bottom. Fold over and serve on a hot 
dish. 
MUTT«»N]3OILED L6 oF MUTTO. 
Wipe the leg with a damp towel. Dus a eloth with 
flour and wrap the leg up with i. Put if into n kettle 
of boiling water and simmer gently 20 minutes  every 
poun,l; add salt v,hen the leg is nearly done. When 
eookê,l remove the eloth earefully, garnish with parsley 
and serve with eaper sauce. Save he liquor in whieh i 
was boiled for broth, stews, etc. 

IRISH STEW. 
3 lbs. of the neck of mutton. 4 potatoes cut into dice. 
4 good sized onions. 2 qts. of waer. 
Sal and pepper to taate. 
('ut the meat into small pieces, cover with the water, 
which should be boiling, add the onions sliced, and 



RECIPES--MEAT. l 01 

simmer gently for 3 hours. About ½ hour before the 
mcat is donc add the potatoes, season with pepper and 
salt, and scrve. 

To tJAKE OR ROAST A (UARTER OF LAMB. 
Wipe the meat with a damp cloth, place lu a baking 
pan, dredge with peI,per, put 1 tsp. of salt in the I)an, 
add just enough water to keep the pan from burning 
until enough of its own fat has fricd out to use for 
basting. Baste af least evcry ]0 minutes; allow 15 
minutes to every pouwl in  very hot oven. Serve with 
mini suuce. 
LAMn CHoPS 
Are broiled or pan-broiled the saine as beefsteak. 

VEAL--VEAL CUTLETS. 
Have the cutlets about ¼ of au inch thick, dredge with 
salt, pêpper and flour. Put a tbsp. of dripping in a fry- 
ing pau, and when very hot put iu the cutlets; when 
brovm on one side turn and brown on the other, take out 
and place on a hot dish. Add a tbsp. of flour fo the fat 
remaining in the pan, mix and stir until brown; add a 
cupful of boiling water, pepper and salt to faste, stir 
until if boils, pour over the cutlets, and serve. 

TEWEI) KNUCKLE OF VEAL. 

Wipe the knuckle well with a damp cloth. Cut it 
into pieces. Put i,to a kettlc with 2 quarts of boiling 
vater, add 1 onion chopped, ¼ lb. of chopped haro, and 1 
b«ty leaf, pepper and salt fo taste. Cover and stew 
slowly for 2 hours (a half cup of rice may be added 
to this stev). 



]0 O DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

I knuckle o[ veal. 
1 blde of n,ace. 
12 whole cloves. 
 cu l) of x-inegar. 
Wipe the knuckle and 

JELLIED VEAL. 
1 oltioll. 
1 bay leaf. 
6 pepper corns. 
Salt and pepper to taste. 
eut it ito pieces. Puç into 

a kettle with 2 quarts of cold water; bring slowly fo 
sim,,,cring point; skim and simnwr ge,tly for 2 hours; 
then add the onion, mate, bay leaf, cloves, pepI)er corns, 
and simmcr 1 ]tour longer. Take out the knuckle, care- 
fully remove the bones and put the meat into a mould 
or square pan. Boil the liquor until reduced fo 1 quart., 
a, hl the vinegar, pepper and sal to taste, strain and 
pour over the mea. Stand away until cohl, when if 
may be tur,,e,1 out and garnished with parsley and 
1111011. 
FILLET OF VEAL (STUFFED). 
1 cup of bread crumbs. [  cup of chopped sal pork or 
1 tsp. of summer savory. I haro. 
1 ssp. of pepper. 1 tsp. of sait. 
Have the bo,,e r,.,noved from the shoulder, fill the 
space from w],ich tl,e b, me was taken with the stuffing, 
fasten the meat togeth,.r with a skewer to prevent the 
stuffin from- coming out, put into the pan with 3 or 4 
tbsps, of dripping, allowing 20 minutes fo each pound, 
basting frequently in a moderately hot oven. 

PORK ANI» ]EANS. 

Soak the beans over night in cohl water. In the 
morning wash thcm well in a colander, put them on fo 
boil in cohl water, at the first boil druin th[s water off 



RECIPES--MEAT. 

103 

and cover with fresh boiling water. Score the rind of 
the pork and put if in with the beans. Simmer gently 
until you can blov off the skin of the beans. To do 
this, take 3 or 4 bcans in your hand, blow hard on tbem, 
and if bhe skin cracks thcy are donc. Take out the 
pork and drain. Pub the bcans into an earthen pot or 
granite kettle with a cover; ahnosb bury elle p,»rk in the 
centre of the ans. A,l,1 1 tsp. of sali fo 1 pint of the 
water in which the beaus were boiled, pour this info the 
pot, sprinkle wifl pepper, pour over t]e Leans 1 large 
spoonful of molasses, pug on the lid, bake in a modcrate 
oven for 6 or 8 h, mrs. If Laked in an ordinary il'on 
baking pan they must be c«,verc,l with another on which 
h been p]ace, l a weight, careful]y watchcd, and baked 
only 3 hours. 

I{OAST PARE I:[IBS. 

Put the spare ribs in a baking pan, sprinkle lighfly 
wit]l pepper, add - tsp. of sa]g to ½ eup of boiling water, 
and pour in the bottom of the pan. Roasç 20 lnimltes 
fo evm T Il)., basting often. Wllen done, make t gravy 
and serve as for any other toast. (Spare ril,s nmy be 
stuffed, the ribs eraeked erosswise, the stuffing plaeed 
in the centre, the two euds fo]ded over, roa.st as ab.ve.) 

]ROILEI} HAM. 
Hve the haro cul into sliees about ¼ ineh thick, trim 
off the filial and rusty edge. ]3roil the saine as steak 
or chops. (This is a very niee way fo serve haro with 
poached eggs.) 
HIII may be pml-broiled as directed in orlner recipes, 



FRIED ]ACON. 
CuU into very fifin |iees, puç int a very ho frying 
pn, and cook unfi| c|ear an,] crisp. 
Prick the skins with a slmrp fork so as fo prevent 
bursting; place theln in a frying pan over a moderate 
tire and fry in their own fat until a nice brown. After 
taking the sausage from the pan, ad,1 1 tbsp. of flour to 
the f«V in the pan, add 1 cup of boiling wate,, stir until 
it boils, pour over the sausage and serve. 
LIVER AND ]ACN. 
Have the baeon cuV in thin slices and keep if cold 
until the rime fo eook it. Have the liver eut into sliees 
about  of an ineh thick. If iV be calf or sheep's liver, 
wash if in eold watt, r and let it drain ; but if it be beef 
livcr, after washing it, eover "«'ith boiling water and let 
if stand for 5 minutes, then drain if. Cook the baeon as 
direeted, then take if up. Lay the sliees of liver in the 
hot fat, eook them for 8 or 10 minutes, turning often: 
season with pepper and sait. Arrange the liver on a 
warm platLer, make a fn'avy as directed in other reeipes, 
pour over the ]iw-r, plaeing the baeon round the outside. 
(Ahvays eook baeon quiek|y and liver slow|y.) 

POULTRY. 

The bes chickens bave soft yellow feet, short thick 
legs, smooth, moist skin and plump l»reast ; the cartilage 
on the end of the breast Ix)ne is soli; and pliable. Pin 
feathcrs always indieate a young bird and long hairs an 
older one. All poultry should be dressed as soon as 



RECIPES--POULTRY. 105 

killed. Cut off the head, and if the fowl is la» be roasted, 
slip the skin back from the neck and cut the neck off 
close to the body, leaving skin enough to fold over on the 
back. Remove the windpipe, pull the crop away from 
the skin on the neck and breast, and cut off close fo the 
openiug in the body. Cut through the skin about 2 
inches below the leg joint, bond the leg at the eut by 
pressing it on the edge of the table and break off th« 
bone. Tl,en pull out the tendon. If care be takt.n to 
cut only through the skin, thêse cor,ls may be pulh«l out 
easily, one at a rime, with the fingers; or by putting 
the foot of the fowl against the casing of a door, then 
shut the door tightly and pull on the h.g. The drum 
stick of a toast chicken or turkey is greatly improved 
by removing the tendons. Cutoutthe oil bag in the 
rail, make an incision near the vent, insert two fingers, 
keeping the fingers up close to the breast bone until you 
can reach in beyond the liver and heart, and loosen on 
either side down toward the back. Draw everything 
out carefully. See that the kidneys and lunzs are hot 
left in, and be very careful not to br_ak any of the 
intestines. When the fowl bas been clean_d carefully it 
will not require much washing. Rinse out the inside 
quickly and wipe dry. In stuffing and trussing a fowl, 
plnce the fowl in a bowl and put the stuflàng in at the 
neck, fill out the bremst until plump. Then draw the 
neck skin together af the ends and sew it over on the 
back. Put the remainder of the stuflàng into the bo, ly 
af the other opening and sew with coarse thread or fine 
twine. Draw the thighs up close to the body and rie 
the legs over the tail firmly with twine. Put a lonff 
skewer through the thigh into the body and out through 



10 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

the opposite thigh, turn the ips of the wings under he 
back of {]ae fow], pUt g long skewer through from ont 
wing fo the other. Wind  strig from the til to the 
skewer in the thih, then up fo the one in the wing 
cross the back fo the other wing, Otan doxm to the 
opposite side and rie firmly round the rail. If you bave 
no skewers, the fowl nmy be kept in shpe by tying care- 
ful]y with twine. Clean all the giblets, cut awayM1 that 
looks green ncar the gall bla, l,ler, own the gizzrd nd 
remove the limer lining without breking. Put the 
zzard, heart, liver, and the piece of neck which has 
been cu off, into cold wter, wash oerefully, pu in  
saucepan, oever with cold water, place on the back of 
the stove nd simlner ti]l tender. Use the liquid for 
l,mking the gravy; the meurt may be chopped and used 
f,»r giblet soup. 

I{OA.T ('HI('KEN (}It TURKEY). 
Singe earefully, remove the pin feathers, draw as 
dirceted bove. Wipe, stuff, sew and fie or skewcr into 
s],ape, dredge with flour, cover with plenty of dripping ; 
roast in P hot oven. Whcn the flour is brovn check 
the hcat, baste frcquently with the fat, and when nearly 
eooked dre,lge with pcppcr m,d salt al,d again with 
flolr. :Bake a 4 lb. ehiekon 1 } hour, or until thejoints 
separate easily. If browldng f,,o fa.st, eover with paper. 
(Roast ehieken is eonsidered to be more wholesome and 
to have a botter flavor when eooked without stuffmg.) 
FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN. 
The first attempt of an inexpcrienced cook in the 
preparation of a chicken should be a fricassee, as it will 



RECIPES--POULTRY. 107 

provide an opportunity for her to study the anatomy of 
a chicken while cutting if in pieces, and also show ber 
the position of the intestines, so that when she attelnpts 
to draw a fowl she will know just where to place her 
hand so ms to remove theln without breaking. 
To prepare a elfieken for a frieassee, elean and singe. 
Cut the ehieken aç the joins in pieees for serving. 
Plaee in a kettle, eover with boiling water, add 2 lcvcl 
tsps. of salt, a ssp. of pepper (some like a small pieee of 
salt pork). Simmer until tender, redueing the water fo 
a pint or less, lif he ehieken, mel 1 tbsp. of butter in 
a saueepan, add 2 tbsps, of flour, and when well mixed 
pour on slowly he ehiekcn li,luor. Add more salL if 
needed, pepper, ½ tsp. of eclery salt, 1 tsp. of lemon juiee 
(an egg may be used by beating and pouring the sauee 
slowly on çhe esc,,, stirring well bçfore adding it fo the 
ehieken). Pour this gravy ov«»r the ehicken and serve; 
dumplings may be ad,led if desire,1, or iç may be p]aeed 
in a deep dish, eovel'cd with pastl T and baked for 
ehicken pie. 
(The ehicken may be browned in a little hot fat as in 
braising meat, and eooked in the saine way.) 

BROILED CHI('KEN. 

Singe and split a young chicken down the back. 
Break the joints, clean and wipe with a wet cloth, 
sl,rinkle with pepper and salt, rub well with butter 
or dril,ping, place lu a double gri,l-iron and br,,il 20 
minutes over a clear (ire. The chicken may be covered 
with fine bread crulnbs or dredged with flour, allowing 
 plentiful supply of butter or dripping, and baked in a 
hot oven ½ hour. 



] 0 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

MEAT «)UFFLE. 

Make 1 cup of white sauce and sea.son with chopped 
parsley and oniou juice. Stir 1 cup of choI,ped meat 
(chicken, tongue, veal or lamb) ito the sauce. When 
hot, a,ld the beaten yolks of two eggs; o,ok 1 minute 
and set away to cool. When cool, stir in the whites, 
beat very stiflï Bake in a buttere, l dish about twenty 
minutes and serve imme,liately. 

CR )QUETTES. 

These lnay be ruade with any kind of cooked meat, 
fish, rice, potatoes, etc., or from a mixture of several 
ingrcdients, when nfixed with a thick white sauce, as 
follows : 1 pint hot milk, 2 tbsps, butter or beef dripping, 
6 (1.) tbsps, flour, or 4 (1.) tbsps, cornstarch, ½ tsp. salt, ½ 
ssp. white pel,per, ½ tsp. celery salt, a speck of caycnne. 
)Ielt the butter or dripping in a saucepan, when hot add 
the dry corstarch or flour. Stir till well nixed. Add 
½ of the hot milk and stir as if boils and thickens, add 
the remainder of the hot milk gradually. The sauce 
should be very thick. Add the seasoning, and mix if 
wtiile hot with the meat or fish. If is ilnproved by 
a, lding a beaten egg just before the sauce is taken from 
thc fire. When cold, shape into rolls or like a pear, roll 
lightly in beaten egg, then in bread crumbs, and fry in 
dee I) hot fat. Drain on coarse brown paper. If the 
mixture be too sort to handle easily stir in enough fine 
cracker or sort bread crumbs to stifln it, but never flour. 



RECIPES--HOT PUDDINGS. ] 00 

HOT PUDDINGS. 

APPLE PUDDING (BAKED). 

1 pint flour. 
 cup butter or dripping. 
1 cup milk. 
1 tsp. cream of tartar. 
3 tbsps, sugar. 

½ tsp. sait. 
1 egg. 
 tsp. soda sifted into the flour. 
6 tar apples. 

Mix the dry ingredients, beat the egg and 1-,ix it 
with the milk, stir this into the dry mixture. Core, 
pare and cut the apples into quarters (if large into 
eighths). Place in the bottom of a pudding dish, sprink]e 
over them the sugar, a little nutmeg or cinnamon may 
be added if desired. Put the mixture over this, lifting 
the apples with a fork or spoon so as fo let the mixture 
penetrate to the bottom of fhe pan. Bake ia a lzoder- 
ately hot oven about 30 minutes. Serve with lcmon 
sauce or thin custard. 

('« »TTA«;E PUDDING. 

] pint sifted flour. 
½ cup sugar. 
¼ tsp. sait. 
1 egg. 

½ cup milk. 
1 tbsp. butter. 
2 tsps. baking powder (level). 

13est the butter and suga.r fo a cream, a,l,1 the un- 
beaten egg, best vigorously for 3 or 4 minutes, ad, l the 
salt, then the flour, with which the baking powder 
should be mixed. Best for a fw seconds, then tur the 
batter into a small, buttered pudding dish, bake about 25 
minutes in a modcrate oven ; serve with lemon sauce. 



110 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

LEMON I:)UDDI NG. 

4 level tbsps, granulated sugar. 
1 ssp. of salt. 
2 tbsps, milk. 
The juice and grated rind of a 
small lemon. 

6 (1.) tsps. c«»rnstarch. 
1 tbsl), butter. 
½ cup water. 
1 egg. 

.Mix the cornstarch with 3 tbsps, cold water; put the 
romain,h-r of the watcr in the sancel»an and sot on to 
ho»il. Ntir into this the mixcd coutarch and cook mtil 
clar. Takc fr, m the tire, a,l,l the salt and lemon, 
reserving 2 tsp. of the h«non. Boat the butter to a 
cream, gradually bat into it the sugar, the yolk of the 
««, lastlr the ni]k. Stir this mixture into the cooked 
inedients, an,l bake in a moderate oven fr 20 minutes. 
i;çat the white of the e==«« to a stiff froth, beat into it 1 
tbsp. of pow,lred sugar an,1 the - tsp. of lcmon juice. 
Spr(.ad this over thc hot çudding and lve in the oven 
,mtil slightly brownM. (This t, udding is botter scrved 
very cold.) 
READ UDDIN«. 
1 pint sle brd cmbs. 2 eggs. 
1 qua of sugar.  tsp. salt. 
1 ssp. of nutmeg or cinnamon. 
S«)ak the brea,l crnmbs f,,r 1 h,mr in 1 quart of milk. 
Beat the eggs, a,ld the sugar and s,.asoning, stir ail in 
the bread erumbs, bake 1 hour in a buttered pu, lding 
dish. (tlaisins or eurrants may be ad,led if desired.) 
Another method for mang bread imdding is to butter 
rhin sliees of stale bread, sprea«l with a little jam or 
sprinkle a few euants (well wmshe«l) over eaeh layer, 
lay them in a pudding dish, pour over a quart of mfik, 



" RECIPES--HOT I'UDDING. 111 
fo whieh hs been clded 3 wêll beatn e««s  eup surfer 
Bke until the eustnrd thiekens. This pudding may be 
served eigher hot or eold. 

TEAMED _/kPPLE ]:)UDDING. 

3 pints pared and quartered al»pies. 
 pint flour. 
½ cup sugar. 
l tbsp. butter. 
 of a grated nutmeg. 

½ cup milk. 
½ pint water. 
 tsp. salt. 
2 (1.) tsps. baking powder. 

Put the apples, water, suffar, nd nutmeg into a p,»rce- 
lt.in or g-anite saucepan and set on the tire. When the 
appl,s begin to boil, set back W]lCl', they will cook 
gently. Mix the fl,gur, sdt and bakiug powder toffeth,:r. 
Rub the butter into tl,is dry mixture, w«:t with thé_ milk, 
stir quickly iuto  sort d«gugh, l:)l'CSs or r,»ll the dough 
lightly into  round piece about the size of the top of 
the saucepan. Lay this on the apples; put on a close 
cover aud continue cooking geutly for 30 minutes. The 
crust may be lift,.,l fo a plate f,»r a molnent, the apples 
turncd into a pud,ling dish, t],cn placing the crust over 
the top. To be served with lclnOU or lmtmeg sauce. 

[ILEI) I:ICE tUDDING. 
½ cu l) rice. [ 1 pint milk. 
½ tsp. sait. I ½ cup raisins. 
Wmsh the rice well. Put it on the tire in 1 pint of 
cold water an,1 lut if cook for 10 minutes. Drain off the 
water, add the salt and milk; thon cook iu the double 
boilcr for 2 hours, add the raisins when about half 
cooked. Do hot stir the rice while it is cooking. 



112 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

]ROW" BETTY. 

Pare, eore and slice 6 or 7 tart apples. Put a layer of 
stale bread crumbs in the bottom of the baking dish, 
then a layer of the apples, another layer of bread crumbs 
and apples, and so on until all are use,], having the last 
]ayer crumbs. A«ld ½ cup of water to ½ cup mo]asses, 
stir in 2 tbsps, of brown sugar; pour it over the crumbs 
and bake in a moderate oven for 1 hour. 

t I'I'LE SNOW. 
6 appls. [ 1 cup white sugar. 
Juice of 1 lemn. I Whites of 6 eggs. 
Pare, core and steam the apples until tender, then 
press them through a seive and put aside to cool; when 
cold add the sugar an, l lemon juice. Beat the whites of 
the eggs fo a ver), stiff froth, add the apples to them by 
spoonfuls, beating all the while. Heap in  glass dish 
and serve immediately. (This is a very delicate aad 
wh,lesom,t l,udding for an in vali,].} 

CALLOPED .APPLES. 
Ma, le the saine as Brown Betty, omitting the molasses, 
adding water aa,] a little lemon juice instead. 

1 cup suet. 
1 cnp molasses. 
3 cups flour. 
 tsp. salt. 
CI,op the suet very fine. 

UET [»UDDING. 
] 1 cup rMsin. 
l cup milk. 
1 tsp. cinnamon. 
I 2 tsps. baking powder. 
tone the raisins. Add the 
molasses to thc suet, then the milk: mix well and add 
thc .alt, fiour and cinnamon. Beat vigorously for 2 or 



RECIPES--HOT PUDDINGS. ] 13 

3 minutes, then add the raisius. Rub in the tour, fo 
which has beeu added the baking powder; mix thor- 
oughly, turn into a buttered mould, steam for 3 hours. 

TAI'I«»('A PUDDING. 

1 cup tapioca. I 1 quart milk. 
4 eggs. I ¼ tsp. 8alt. 
½ cup 8ugar. 1 tsp. vanilla. 

Wa.h the tapioca carefully, then a,ld it to the milk 
and soak 2 h,,urs. Beat the eggs and sugar together, 
add the sait, stir into the tapioct and milk, and bake in a 
moderate oven at least î of an hour. Serve hot or cold. 

CHOC(}LATE PUI}DIN;. 
1 egg. [ 1 pint milk. 
2 tbsps, cornstarch. [ 1 tbsp. boiling water. 
3 tbsps, sugar. ] ½ tsp. salt. 
½ tsp. vanflla. 1 oz. shaved chocolate. 
Reserve ½ cu l) milk, put the remainder on the tire in 
a double bol]er. Mix the co]d milk with the cornstarch 
and salt. Beat the egg well and add to tbe cornstarch 
mixture. Stir this into the boi]ing milk and stir well. 
Put the choco]ate, sugar and boiling water into a snmll 
frs.'ing pan or saucep«m, and set over  hot tire. Stir 
untii the mixture is smooth and glossy; beat this into 
the pu,lding nd cook for 2 miroites longer. Take from 
the tire and add the vanilla. Dip  mould into cohl 
water and turn the pudding into it. Set away to cool. 
When cold and stiff, turn out ou a fiat dish and surround 
with whipped cream ; or serve with cream and sugar or 
a sort custard. 
8 



1 1  DOMESTIC ,SCIENCE. 

SNow PUDDING. 
 box gelatine.  2 tbsps, cold ter. 
l cup boiling wter. I Juice of one lemon. 
l cup sugar. Whies of 2 eggs. 
Soak the gelatine in cold water for 2 hours. Pour 
upon this the boiling watcr an,1 stir until the gelatine is 
dissoived ; thon add the sugar and lemon juice, stirring 
until the sugar is dissolved. Set the bowl in a pal of 
co]d water, or broken ice. Stir frequently; when it 
bens fo thicken, stir in the beatcn whites of thc eggs, 
pour into e mould and set away until firm. Serve with 
boiled eustar,1. 
CR.«.t Pt. 
5ltke a plain eup cake, and bake if in a shallow 
eake pan. Wlen eooked and col,l, split if earefully. 
Put 1 pint «»f uilk on to boil in a farina boiler. Beat 
the yolks of 3 eggs and ½ eup of sugar together until 
light, then a,ld the well-beaten whites, and stir them 
into the boiling milk; stir over the tire for about 1 
n,inute, then take from the tire, add 1 tsp. of vanilla, and 
stand away to cool. When eold, and ready fo serve, put 
a thiek layer of this sauee b,-tween the layers of eake, 
pour the romaining sauee around the pie, and serve 
imme, liately. 
}fLANC 3lANGE. 
1 pint milk. [ 4 (1.) bsps. eornstareh. 
2 tbsps, sugar. . aap. aalt. 
Put the milk on ço boil. Moisten the eornstareh with 
a litt]e eold milk, then a,l,l if to t]m boiling milk, and stir 
until if thiekens ; let if eook slowly for 5 minutes; a, ld 
the sugar and sait, take from the tire, pour into a mould 
and set away to harden. 



RECIPES--PUDDING SAUCES. ] 15 

STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE. 
1 pint flour. I 1 oz. butter. 
½ tsp. sait. [ 1 cup milk. 
3 (1.) tsps. baking powder. 
Mix the salt, flour and butter together. Sift, then 
the baking powder and sift agaiu. Add the liquid 
gradually, mixing and cutting with u knife until the 
,lough is light and sp«mgy; turn it out on u well fl«»ured 
board, pat into  fiat cake and roll gently till ½ an ilmh 
thick. ]ake in  spider or pie plate in a rather hot oven. 
Split and spread with sweetclmd berries and serve either 
hot or cold. 

PUDDING SAUCES. 

PLAIN SAUCE. 
l cup water. ; 3 tbsps, sugar. 
l tsp. butter. I 2 tsps. flour or cornstarch. 
½ ssp. grated nutmeg. 
]Ielt the butter and flour togcther, stir in the hot 
water, add thc sugar and flavoring, cook until Slnooth 
and clear. 
)| »LASSES AUCE. 
½ cup molasses. I 1 tbsp. lemon juice. 
½ CUl» water or  tbsp. vinegar. I l tbsp. butter. 
2 (1.) tsps. flour, i ½ ssp. sait. 
½ cup sugar. [ 
Mix the flour and sugar togethcr. Pour the boiling 
water upon it. Add the molasses and ploee on the range. 
Simmer for 10 minutes. Add the other ingredients ; boil 
up once and serve. (Olait lenlon if vimgar is used.) 



l ] 6 DOME5TIC SCIENCE. 

CIVEts[ SAUCE. 
1 egg. [ ½ cup powdered sugar. 
l tsp. butter. I 1 tsp. vanilla. 
I tsp. cornstarch, l cup boiling milk. 
Beat thc white of the cgg to a stiff froth ; then gradu- 
ally beat into if the povdered sugar and cornstarch. 
Ncxt add the yolk of the cgg and boat well. Pour upon 
this the cupful of boilin milk and place on the tire. 
Stir until i boils, then a,hl the butter and vmfilla. 

LE)I(»N AUCE. 
1 tbsp. cornstarch.  1 tbsp. butter. 
½ cup sugar. I l egg. 
I pint boiliug water, l lemon. 
Beat the ce« ad,l the constarch and sugar, stir them 
well together ; add the boiling water gradually and stir 
over the th'e until thick ; a,ld the butter, juice and gTated 
rind f one lemn. Serve hot. 

YANILLA SAI'('E 
1 cap milk. ] "2 egg8. 
2 11. ) tbsps, sugar. ½ tsp. vat)illa. 
Prit the milk on fo boi], l».at the yolks and sugar till 
very light" a, ld them fo the boiling milk ; stir over the 
fir{ until creamy. Have the whitcs l».aten, pour over 
thmn thc boi|ing mixtures.; beat thoroughly and serve at 
{)liCe. 

CAKE. 

There are practically tw{) kinds of cake, that ruade 
with butter, ,n,l cake ruade without butter. When 
th«se two methods are undel'.tood, cake lmtking beeomes 
casy. A few simple l'ules lnU,t govern all cake making. 



RECII'ESCAKE. ] 17 

1st. legulate the heat. C,kes without butter require 
a quick oven; with butter, .u mode,',te ov,.n. 2,,1. 
Beat whites and yolks separately. 3r,l. ]3eat butter 
and sugar to a cream. 4th. Ad,] the whites last. 5th. 
Currants should be cleaned, washed and dried and 
tloured (fo which flour some of the baking pow,ler 
should be added). 6th. Add the ,,,ilk Ol- water u'adu- 
ally. 7th. Sift the flour before measuring. 8th. 2 level 
tsps. of baking powder are equal fo ½ tsp. sod and 1 tsp. 
crealn of tartar. 9th. When l«,okil,g af a cake wl,ile 
baking, do it quickly and without jarring the store. 
10th. To fil,,] out if if is baked, rul a bl'oo,,, st,'aw 
through the cen{re, if no dough adheres the cake is d,ne. 
llth. If bl'owl,il,g too quickly, cover with bl'oWn paper 
and reduce the l,eat gn'adually. This is usually nêces- 
sary in }king fruit cake. 12{h. Mix cake in an earthen 
bow], never in tin. 13th. So,bt, ci'tare of tartar, and 
baking powder should be crushed and sifted with the 
flour. Always attend fo the tire bcfore beginning fo 
lnake cake. Coarse gn'anulat,.d sugar ,,,akes a coarse, 
heavy cake. If cake browns before 1-isi,,g the oven is too 
hot. When it rises in the centre and cracks open it is 
too stiff with flour. If sh,ml,1 fise first round th edge, 
then in the middle and remain leve]. 

(ï_INGERI;REA D. 
1 cup molasses. ] ½ cup sour milk. 
2 tbsps, butter. [ 1 tsp. soda. 
I tsp. ginger. 1 egg. 
1 pint flour. I 
Put the molasses and butt.r in a pan and set on the 
store. When the mixture boils up ad,l the soda and 
ginger, and take from the tire immediately. Add the 



milk, the we|l-beaten egg and the flour, beat well. 
Bake in  s]m|low cake pan in a rather quick oven for 
20 minut,.s. 

SPICE CAKE. 

¼ cup butter. 
½ cup molasses. 
½ cup sour milk. 
½ ssp. salt. 
½ tsp. soda. 
The juice an,l rind of ½ 
]eat the butte to a cream. 

½ cup ugar. 
2½ cups flour. 
 tsp. ginger. 
1 tsp. cinnamon. 
 nutmeg, grated. 
1 egg. 

Gradually beat into it 

the sugar, then the si,ice and l,_.mon, lmXt the molasses. 
Now dissolve the sod«t in one tl»sp, cohl watcr and stir it 
into the sour milk; add tlds, and the egg well toeaten, fo 
the other in-cdients. La.tly a,l,l the flour, and beat 
briskly for ½ minute. Pour into a wcll buttred pan 
and bake in a modcraçe oven for ab,rot 50 minutes. 

,_' PONG E CAKE. 
3 eggs. [ The grated rind and juice of 
 cup flour. I ½ lemon. 
 cup lmlverized sugax. 
]eat the yolks of the eggs and sugar until very light, 
now add the juice and rind of the lclnon and hall the 
rlour; beat the whites fo  vcry stiff froth, add the 
rcmaindr of the flour aud the whites alternately, stir- 
ring lightly, pour into  greased cake I)an. ]ake in a 
quick ovcn from 25 fo 30 minutes. 
IOLL JELL¥ CAKE. 
2 eggs. [ ½ tsp. salt. 
1 cup sugar. [ 1 cup sweet milk. 
1 cu l) flour. 3 (1.) tsps. baking powàer. 



REClPES--CA KE. 119 

Beab bhe eggs seœearately till very light, flmn beat 
them gether, add the sugar, thon the milk gra, lually, 
then the flour in wMch the sa.lt an, l ])king powdcr bave 
been mixed. Spread very rhin on 1,,ng shallow paris. 
Spread with jelly whfle warm and roll up. 

1 cu l) butter. 
1 cup milk. 
2 tsps. caraway seeds. 
3 tsps. baking powdcr. 

,EED (,A KE. 

1  cu l) sugar. 
3 eggs. 
3 cups flour. 

Cremn the Lutter, add the sugar gradually, thcn the 
yolks of the eggs, then the seeds; sift the baking 
powder with the flour; a,l,l the flour and ,,ilk a]tcr- 
nately a little ab a rime, lastly the whites which have 
becn beaten stiff and dry; bake from 40 fo 50 minutes. 

C( )OKIES (PLAIN). 

½ cup butter. ] 1 cup sugar. 
 cup milk. ] 1 egg. 
2 even tsps. baking powder. Flour to roll ou rhin. 
Cream the butter, add the sugar, milk, egg beaten 
]ightly, and the baking pow, lcr mixed with two cups 
«,f flour, then enough more flour to roll out. 1oll a 
little ai a rime. Cut out. Bake about 10 minute& 

LAVER CAKE. 
½ cup butter. 3 eggs. 
1 cup sugar. ] cup milk. 
ot_ cups flour. 4 (1.) tsps. baking l,owder. 
Beat the butter a,l,l sug;tr fo a cream, then a, ld the 
yolks of the eggs gradually; then the flour and milk 



120 DO.VESTIC SCIENCE. 

alternately (sifting the baking pow,ler with the flour), 
add the well-beaten wh]tes lasç. take in 3 çins in a 
moderate oven about 15 minutes. (Flavoring bas been 
omitted in flds recipe as the cake is more delicate by 
alluwing the filling to provide the flavor.) 
)LAIN FRUIT CAKE. 
3 eggs.  cu l) butter. 
I cu I) milk. 3 (1.) cups flnur. 
I oz. candie«l lelnon. 1 cup raisins. 
4 (1.) tsps. baking powder. 
Mix as directe,] in prcce,ling recipe, only mixing the 
fruit with the itour a,d baking I)ow,ler. 
:[CING. 
'hites of 2 eggs. I l tsp. of lemon juice. 
½ lb. powdered sugar. 
Have the mater]al v«.ry cold. ]reak the eggs care- 
fully, boat the wh]tes until frothy (hot st]ff); sift the 
sugar in oTadually, beating all the wh]le; ad,1 thc lcmon 
juice and contiuue heating until fine and wh]te, and stiff 
enough to sta,l alonc. Ke,_,p in a cool place, when 
using, spread with a knife 
used for ormmcnth prcss through a tube. It may 
bc ,|ivided and diflrcnt c[lorings 
]OILED 
1 cup granulated sugar. I ¼ tp. cream o.f tartar. 
 cup boiling water. I lVhite of 1 egg. 
Boil the sugar and water together until it hangs from 
the spoon. Beat the egg to a stiff froth, a,],| the cream 
of tartar, then pour on the syrul, beating all the wh]le. 
Beat until cold and thick. 



RECIPES--PASTRY. ] 2| 

PASTRY. 
Pastry, unless light and tender, should never be catch; 
even then it should be avoided by people with poor 
digestion. There are so many food preparations supcrior 
to pastry in both nutritive value and cost of time and 
material, that it will be wise fo give it a very seconda,'y 
place in the training of  culinary artist. HCm'ever, as 
it is still  popular fancy with many, we may as well 
mke the best of it. ]3utter is more wholesome in pastry 
than lard, alhough the latter makes  light crust. In 
order to secure satisfactory results in pastl'y making-- 
espeeially puff pastry--three things should be observe,l : 
(1) bave all the materials cold ; (2) use as little liquid as 
possible; (3) handle lightly and quickly. Pastry should 
be very e«»l,l when it is put into the oven. Have the 
oven very hot. 
IDUFF PASTE. 
1 lb. flour. I Enough ice water fo make into 
1 lb. butter, a very stiff dough. 
If the butter is salty, wash it as follows: Scald a 
large bowl, then fill with col,l water; wash the hallds iii 
hot soapy water, then rinse them in eold water, as this 
will prevent the butter from stieking to the hands. Turn 
the cold watr out of the bowl ; fill it with iee water, put 
the butter into it and work with the hands until sort and 
elastie. Drain the water froln the butter and place on 
iee until hard. 8ift the flour, put ¼ of the butter into 
the flour, eut with a knife or ehoi,ping knife until 
thoroughly mixed; then m'adua]ly add ice water until 
it is lnoist enough to hol,l tovether , turn out on the 
board or marble slab. Press into shap,:, roll lightly until 



about  inch thick ; eut the remain,1,_.r «,f the butter into 
small pic.ces, and l.y over this layer of dougK Fold 
crefully over an,l ove.r, roll three rimes. If tbe dough 
should gel sort a,l sticky, place i in  tin or cold plate 
on the ice fo l:u'd,.n bêtwen the rollings. Always fold 
pasti T so as fo kecp iç in layersven when cutting off 
the r«»ll k-ep the la3»l'S one above the other, hot Lurning 
01cm on 01eir sides. For patties, or especially flaky 
l»StlT, roll rive or six tiret.s, 1,rovided iL is hot allowed fo 
gel soft. Pastry shoul,1 be rollcd about as Ofin as thc 
edge of a plate for tarts, etc., and about - inch thick for 
a covcr for chicken pie. 

PLAIN ]?A.TRY. 
2 cups flour. ] 1 cup butter «»r lard. 
A,hl the butter fo thc flour, chop with a knife, add 
enough ice water fo make a firm dough. Roll out, fohl, 
set on ice or in  cold place for af least  hour before 
bakilg. 
PhSTE FOa MEhT PIES, ETC 
1 pint flour. [ ½ tsp. lt. 
{ t.p. soda. i ] tsp. crem trtr. 
Or 2 level taps. baking powder. I : cup butter or dripping. 
1 egg. I 1 eup milk. 
Mix as for biscuit or shortcake. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

HEPHERD'S :PIE. 

Three cups of any kiml of col,1 meat, 6 or 7 potatoes, 
l small onion, 1 cupful of boiling milk, salt, pepper, 1. 
cup gravy or stock thickened with 1 tbsp. of flour. Cut 



RECIPES--M ISCELLANEOUS. ] 

the meat in small pieces and put in a deep earthen dish. 
Grate the onion into the gravy and pour over the meat. 
Pare, boil, md mash thc potatoes. Add the salt, pepper 
and milk, md 1 tbsp. of butt,.r or drippilg. Covcr the 
meat with this and l»ake in a moderate oven until nicely 
brown. 
EEF STEW. 
Take the boncs and hard tough parts Icft from a toast 
of beef. Remove all the meat fr6m the bom.s an,1 cut it 
into small pieces. Cut about ¼ of a lb. of the fat into 
pieces ; put if in the stewpan to fry. When if begins to 
brown put in  oerrot, a piecc of turnip and 2 small 
onions cut fine. Stir over the fire for l 0 minutes. Take 
out the fat and vegetables and put thc bones in the 
bottom of the kettle. Add the meat and cooked vege- 
tables, but hot the fat. Drcdge with sa]t and œecpper, and 
flour, using af lcast ½ cup flour. A«101 3 pints of watcr 
md simmer gently 1 hour; pare and cut in slices 6 
potatoes, simmer until the potatoes are well cooked. 
Draw forward where if will boil more rapidly, have 
dough ready for dumplings (sec rccil,e f«,r dumplins). 
Put the dumplings Oll the top of the st-_w; cover closely 
and cook just 10 minutes. 

TUFFED TO3IAT(»ES. 
Take 6 large smooth tomatoes, ½ tsp. sait,  ssp. peppÇr, 
½ tb,p, butter, ½ tbsp. sugar, ½ tsp. onion juice, ½ CUl,fui 
bread crumbs. Arrange the tomatoes in a baking pan. 
Cut a rhin slice from the smooth end of each. With a 
small spoon scoop out as much of the pulp and juice as 
possible without injuring the shape. Mix the pulp and 
juice with the other _inbn'edients and fill the ton,atoes 



] 2 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

with this mixture. Put on the tops and bake s]ow]y ] of 
an hour. Lift the tomatoes carefully and place ott a hot 
fiat dish, garnish with parsley, and serve. 

TEWED KIDNEYS. 
Cut the kidneys in rhin, roun,l slices. Cover them 
with eol,l water and lut them stan,1 for ½ bout; wash 
them elean, and put them in a saueepan with 1 qt. of 
watcr or stock, 2 eloves, 2 tbsps, of onion juice, salt and 
pel,per, bitumer 2 hours. Put 1 tbsp. of butter in the 
frying pau, and when hot add 1 of flour; stir until if is 
brown and smooth, and ad, l to the kidneys. Add a little 
sweet herbs, and simmer  hour longer. If not seasoned 
enough, add a little more salt and pepper, and, if desired, 
1 tbsp. of lemon juiee. This dish ean be prepared af any 
time, as it is quite as good warmed over as when if i.s 
prepare,l. 
CIA-ED EGCs. 
Boil 6 e,«s 20 minutes. Make 1 10ht of eream 
sauce. Have 6 slices of toast on a hot dish. Put a 
layer of sauce on each slice of toast, then part of the 
whites of the e«s,, eut in thin strips, rub parb of the 
yolks through a sieve, or a potato ricêr, on fo the toast. 
Repeat this, and finish with a third layer of sauce. 
Place in the oven ïor about 3 minutes, thet serve. 

BUTTEI',ED TOAST. 

Cut the broad  of an inch thick. Turn the bread 
twiee (so as to draw out the moisture) before browning. 
Have some melted butter on a plate, dip one side of the 
toast in this belote serving. 



RECIPES--M ISCELLANEOUS. 1 -°5 

CROUTONS (FOR SOUP). 
Cut stale bread into ½ inch slices, rêmove the crust 
and cut into  inch cubes. Drop them into hot fat, 
which shou]d be hot enough to brown them, while you 
courir 40; drain and sprinklc with salt. 

FRENCH TOAST. 
1 egg. [ 1 ssp. salt. 
1 cup milk. ] 4 to 6 slices of stale bread. 
Beat the egg lightly with a fork in a shallov dish, 
add the salt and milk. Dip the bread in this, turn; 
have a gq-iddle hot and well buttered, put the dipp.,1 
bread on the hot gq+ldle, brown, then put a little pb.ee 
of butter on the top of eaeh sliee, turn and brown on the 
other side. To be eaten hot with jelly or with butter 
and sugar. 
SANDWICHES, 
Chop very fine cold haro, corned beef or tongue, 
adding a little of the fat. _Mix 1 tsp. of dry mustard, 1 
ssp. of salt, a few drops of lemon juice with cold water 
to a stiff paste; add fo it ¼ cup butter creamed. Cut 
hread--at le.st 1 day o]d--in very rhin slices, spread 
with the mustard and butter paste, then with the meat. 
Put two sliees together and eut into any shape desired. 
(Chieken or veal sandwiches nmy be ruade by ehopping 
the meat very fine, and adding to it a little of the 
cooked salad dressing or lnayonnaise.) 



126 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

A FEW GENERAL HINTS. 

IIow TO BLANCH ALMONDS. 
Shell the ,mis, and pour boiling water over them ; let 
them stand in the wter a minute or two and then throw 
the,n into cold wter. Rub between the hands. 

To CLEAN CURRANTS. 
Sprinkle thickly with flour, rub well until they are 
separated and the flour, grit, and fine stems have loosen- 
ed. Throw them into  strainer and wash thorouglfly in 
eold water; change the wter often; shake well in the 
strainer ; then drain between towels, piek over earefully, 
and dry them in a warm place, but not in the oven. Put 
away in jars, cover elosely, and they are ready for use 
at any rime. 
SERv- FOOD. 
Ho foM should be served hot, and on hot plates. 
Col,l food shoul,1 be served ver 3- eold. A little garnish 
of parsley, har«l-boiled egg, slieed lemon, toast, water- 
eress or centre of a lettuee head adds mueh fo the 
attraetivêness of a dish. Small rolls, a square of bread, 
or eroutons should be served with soup. Slieed ]emon 
with flsh. Cold beets, earrots, turnips, and thê whitês 
of hard-boiled egs, stamped out with a faney vegetable 
eutter, make a pretty garnish for eold meats. Toast eut 
into triangles makes a suitablê garnish for many dishes. 
Whipped eream is the most delieate garnish for all 
eold, light pu,ldings; a little eoloring may be added fo 
part of if in ordcr fo var 3" thê decoration. 



A FEW GENERAL HINTS. 

CANNIN'G AN'D PRESERVING. 
Cauning fruit is simply sterilizing and sealing in air- 
tight ja. Any fresh ripe fruit may be kei)t in this way. 
By observing a few general rules any housekeeper may 
preserve fruit successfully. 1st. Have goo«l fruit, rii)e 
a, nd fresh. 2nd. Have air-tight jars--test by tïlling with 
water and inverting. 3rd. See that the jars have bcen wcll 
scalded ,nd are free from odor of any kin«l. 4th. Have 
riras ncl covers af hand so that the jars may be sealed 
immediately when the fruit is put into them. 5th. Fill the 
jars till they overflow. 6th. Let the syrup simm_r for 
a few minutes before putting in the fruit. 7th. Cook 
the fruit slowly so as to avoi,] breakinv ; I)lace carefully 
in the jars, fill up with syrup and seal af once. A good 
method for canning fruit is to cook the fruit in the jars, 
by placing them in a boiler or kettle of water with a, 
wire fmme or something underneath to avoi,] breaking. 
Fill the jar with fruit ; pour over a s)n'up of the dcsired 
consistency, screw on the toi) loose]y--so as fo allow the 
gas fo escai)e--an,l 1,lace in the boilcr ; fill the boiler with 
coM water ui) to thc rira of the jar and bring slowly to 
boiling I)oint. Al]ow small fruits fo remain 10 minutes, 
,nd I)eoehes, œeears, etc., 15 minutes ,ftcr the water bvils. 
Remove the toi)s, till fo overflowiug with boiling syrtp, 
and seal af once. By this method fruit retains the flavor 
somewhat more than by cookiug in an open kettle. An 
average ssq-u p for canning fruit is nmde by adding a 
I)oun,] of sugar to  I)int of wat_r (see rule 6). In or, ler 
fo prevent frui jars from cracking, wring , cloth out of 
cold water on which the jar shoul,l be placed before 
filling with the hot fruit, or by placing , silver spoon or 
fork in the jar 1)ef,»re putting in the syrui) , fruit or jclly. 



Always see that the tops are screwed on tightly before 
putting the jar away in a cool place, which should hot 
be done until the fruit has become cold. 

PRESERVING. 
Preserving differs from canning in the amount of sugar 
used: otherwise the metho«] is similar. Preserves are 
usually ruade from e«lual weights of sugar and fruit, and 
cooked af least 20 minutes. 

JELLIES. 

Fruit jellies are n,ade of e_lual parts of clear fruit juice 
and sugar. Crab aIiles, currants, and quinces are the 
most reliable fruits for jelly. Cook the fruitcurrants 
may be mashed and drained without cooking--until soft. 
Drain over night through a flannêl bag. In the morn- 
ing measure 1 pint of sugar for each pint of juice. Heat 
the sugar in  large earthen bowl in the oven, stirring 
often fo prevent burning. Let the juice boil 20 minutes; 
thên ad«l the hot sugar and boil about 5 minutes longer, 
or mtil it thickens whcn dropped from a spoon. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER,S. 

Carefully supervise the daily dieta .ry so that a reason- 
• able proportion of the necessar" food elements may be 
provided. See tl,at the proportion of proteid is one part 
to four of carboh.v,lrates and fat.s. Adapt the dietary fo 
the season an,1 climate. Do hot wase time and money 
in prepm'ing qch puddings, entrees, cakes, etc., when fresh 
fruit, vegetables, salads, etc., are so much more nutritious, 
economical and convenient. Arrange fo ha,ce a variety 



SUGGESTIONS FOR YOUNG HOUSEKEEPERS. 129 

of food---different kinds of meat, fish,and poultry--cooked 
in various ways. Sec that suitable food is provided for 
the children; especial]y pure milk and food coutaining 
mineral salts. Do not allow children to use tea, coffee, 
or other stimulants. A glass of hot milk (hOt boiled) is 
the best stimulant for a chil«l when wearied with study 
or over exertion of any kind. 
Sec that the water which has stood in the pipes over 
night is drawn before filling the tea-kettle for breakfast, 
or using the water for pOl'ldge or other purposes. Rinse 
the tea-kettle every molning belote using, zNever use 
water from the hot tank f«»r cooking. Sec that the 
water used for drinking purposes is pure ; if suspicious, 
either have if filtered or boiled before using. Do hot 
allow soiled rags, dish cloths or towels fo lie around the 
kitchen. Wash and scald the dish chths and towels 
after each dish washing, hanging them outside fo dry 
--if poasible. Keep plenty of clean towels; some fine 
ones for g]ass and china, coarser ones for general use. 
Have special cloths for kitchen use. Keep a holder 
within reach of the oven so as to avoid bunfing the 
fingers, or using an a]?ron. ee that a kett]eful of 
boiling water is poured down the sink pipes every da)'. 
All boxes, ja-s and shelves in which food is kept, nmst 
be kept scrupulously clean and well aired. The rcfriger- 
ator requires special attention; sec that the drain pipe 
and interior of ice-box are kept thoroughly clean. A stiff 
wire with a piece of cloth fastened on the end may be 
used fo clean the drain pipe af least once a week. Do not 
have any closet under the sink or places of concealment 
for dirty pots and pans. Bowls which bave been used for 
flour mixtures should be filled with cold water if hot 
9 



wshed immediately after using. Never put kitehen 
knives and forks into the dish water, as if loosens the 
handles; hold them in the hand and wash with the dish 
eloth. Burn all refuse, both for eonvenienee and as a 
sanitary measure. If a refuse pail is used, if shoald be 
scalded frequently and a solution of carbolic acid, chloride 
of lime or other disinfectant used. Do not put paris and 
kettles hall filled with water on the store fo soak, as 
it only hardens whatever may bave adhered to the 
kettle and makes it more difficult to clean. 

)ISH VASHING. 

Many young housekeepers look upon dish washing 
as the "bug-bear" of the kitchen. It need not be 
disagreeal»le "«-ork; indeed the washing of china, glass 
an,l silver ware may be placed anaong the arts of house- 
keeping. It should be the ambition of every young 
housekeeper to know how everything pertaining fo 
househol,l management should be done, and how to do 
it; whether she ha.s fo do it herself or direct othel. 
One of the most important duties is dish-washinff. A 
few simple rules may help fo make this duty less objec- 
tionable. 1. Collect knives, forks an,] spoons by them- 
selves. Scrape the dishes, empty the cups, and arrange 
neatly in the order in which they are to be washe, l. 
2. Nevor pile dishes indiscriminately in a dish pan, as each 
kind requires separate treatment. 8. Havetwo pans hall 
full of water- one with soapy water, the other with 
clear hot water for rinsinK. 4. Wash the glassware first, 
in mo,lerately hot water, slip the glasses in sideways so 
that the h,,t water mav strike insi,le and outside af once, 



SUGGESTIONS FOR YOUNG HOUSEKEEPERS. 131 

which will prevent breaking. Rinse and wipe at once, 
as they will be much brighter and clearer than if alb,wed 
to drain. 5. If the glass is eut, use  brush to cleanse 
out all the grooves. As it is difflcul to dry such glass- 
ware, i should be dipped in clear cold water aft,.r 
washing, and allowed to drain. 6. Always keep tl,," 
towel between the hands and the glass so as to avoid 
finger marks, linse glasses which have contahmd milk 
in cold water before washing. 7. Next wa.h the sih»_r 
and wipe at once; then the china, first in the hot suds, 
then rinse in the clear hot watr; Wil,e while warm. 
8. Change dish water oftcu, especially if the di.hes 
are greasy; and do not ]eave the soap in the wat_r to 
wa.ste and stick to the dishes. 9. Use fresh water for 
the kitchen crockery, and pots and pans. After wiping 
tinware, place if on the hearth fo dry, as it rusts v«,ry 
easily. 10. Polish the knives with bathbrick, woc,1 
ashes or san(lsoap. Wash, and wipe perfectly dry ; h«,ld 
in the hand and wash with the dish cloth ; do hot und.r 
any circumstances allow knives and forks to lie in hot 
water. Next wash the tray, the rinsing pan, tlJe table and 
the sink. Finally, thê dish towels, dish cloth and dish 
pan. 
Pans in which fish or onions have been cooked should 
be washed and scalded, then fille,l with water, in which 
put a tsp. of soda. Place them on the top of the store 
for ½ hour; this will remove the flavor of fish or onions, 
If the steel of knives or forks should become rusted, dip 
them in sweet oil and let stand for twcnty-four hours, 
then tub with powdered quicl¢-]ime and the stain will 
be removed. Rub the ivory handles which bave become 
stained, with whiting and spirits of turpentine. 



13 .9. DOMISTIC SCIENCE. 

VENTILATION AND SANITATION. 
As pure air is one of the essentials of good health, it 
follows that one of the chier duties of  housekeeper is 
to see that the family sup[»ly of this necessary elementis 
properly regulated. Ve T few housekeepers realize the 
im[»ortance of ventilation in promoting the general 
health and comfort of the family.  the scope of this 
book prevents anything further than a few suggestions 
or a brief outline of the principles underlying these im- 
pooEant questions, 'e will adopt the rule followed in the 
preceding chapter, benning with the cellar: l. Sec 
that surface water is carried away from aH sides, by 
either natal or aloEificial drain, and that the cellar is 
pcrfectly dç'. Have enough windows in the cellar to 
secure plenty of light and air, and sec that they are opened 
every day. 2. Have the cellar thorou¢hly cleaned and 
whitewashed with lime at least once  yeer, twice ff pos- 
sible, in the spring and fall. 3. Keep the coal in a dry 
place. 4. Do not allow decomposed vegetables, or old 
bottles, which may cause unpleasant odo, to accumulate 
in the cellar. Unless there is a special eellar for vege- 
tables, where they my be kept at  pror temperature 
and oerelly loeked after, it is much better for the 
housekeeper to purchasc in small «tuantities. Remember 
the ventilation of the cellar is of the eatest impoance, 
and should never be neglected. 
One of th, most noted authorities in Amefica, on the 
question of ventilation, says: "The three imposant 
objects are, 1) To proxfide an abundance of pe air in 
eve paoE of the hoe; 2) To void drafts, either hot 
or cold; (3) To prode means of pe for fo a and 



SUGGESTIONS FOR YOUNG HOVSEKEEPERS. 133 

odors." As before stated, much of the vigor, comfort and 
happiness of the family depends upon attention to these 
matters. :Next fo the celtar, we will take thc living and 
sleeping rooms, which should be thoroughly aired cvery 
da3", hot simI»ly by opening the window a 5.w iches . 
af the botton, or--as in some double or outside win, lows-- 
by e little opening  few inchcs wide ; but by causing  
circulation of air in the room, and proqding an outl,'t for 
foul air near the ceiling, which may be donc by lowering 
the window frofia the top. An ourlet 5)r foul air is quite 
as important as an inlet for fresh air. 
If there is a skylight at the top of the house, it should 
be kept open a few inches ail the rime as an outlet for 
impure air; an attic window will serve the saine purpose. 
Have dehors and windows so arranged that a draft may 
be ruade possible when needed fo change the air of a 
room quickly, or in airing bedclothes; two windows being 
of course more desirable. After dressing in the morning, 
open the window of the sleeping room, top and bottom; 
turn back the clothes over one or two chairs; place 
pillows and mattress where they will have a current of 
fresh air; also open the closet door. I)o hot allow water 
fo remain in  bedroom more than twenty-four home. 
When a sleeping room bas been used for a sewing or 
sitting room during the day, if should be thoroughly 
aired before bedtime. Open the bathroom window fre- 
quently, top and bottom, for a few minutes, so as fo allow 
the air to escape out of doors instead of into other parts 
of the house. A nursery, sitting room or school room, 
which has been occupied by a numbcr of peopIe, should 
bave the windows open, top and bottom, while the occu- 
pants are af meals or elsewhere. A room which has been 



1'-]- ] » »-MEST1C 8('IENCE. 

occupie,l as a family sitting room during the evening 
sllould be airçd by the last member of the family fo 
retire, in ord,.r fo prcvent the impure air making its way 
through the house during the night. 
Special attention shoulfl be dven to kitchen ventila- 
tion. In or,]er fo prevcnt kitchen odors from penetrating 
tllrough tlle other parts of tl,e house, if is necessary to 
have an outlet for stcam an,] impure air near the ceiling 
in the kit«hc. If win,l,ws arc placed so as to secm'e a 
draft, th,.y may be opene,l at the top only, when they 
will serve the purpose a,]mirably. There should be a 
ventilating flue in all kitcllen chimneys. In building a 
llouse, see that restcr ventilators are placed in the 
kitchen on different walls, which may be closed in very 
ol,l weather. 

LAUNDRY W»RK. 

As tbe first essential of laundry vork is a plentiful 
supply of watcr, a, word concerning that necessary article 
may uot be out of place. Pure water is a chemlcal com- 
poun,l of hydrogen and oxygen. It has great absorbent 
al01 solvcnt powers, ther_f,re pure water is seldom round. 
The first fall of al,y shower is mixed with fhe in,pu_rities 
,,[ the air; among tbese may be acids, ammonia and 
carbon in the form of soot and creosote. It is these 
iml,urities which cause the stain left when rain water 
stands on the window-sill or other finished wood. Rain 
water absorbs more or lcss carbon dioxide from various 
sources, and soaking into tbe soil oftcn cornes in contact 
with lime, magqmsia and other compounds. Water 
saturat.d with carbon dioxide will dissolve these sub- 



SUGGESTIONS FOR YOUNG HOUSEKEEPERS. 135 

stances, formbg carbonetes or other salts which are 
soluble ; such water is known as "" hard." 
Watcr for domestic uses is called either "har, l " or 
"soft," according fo the amount of salts which it may 
contain. When soap is a,|ded fo harcl water, the new 
eompound formed by the mion of the lime with the 
fatty acid of the soap is insoluble, and is deposited upon 
the surface of any article with whieh it cornes in contact. 
This is the reason why "hard "water rcquires more soap 
when used for laundry work. It is much botter fo soften 
the water by the addition of alkalies, ammoni or sal- 
sod before using for lauu,lry I)urI)oses than fo dcpcn,1 
eutirely upon soap for eleansing. 
Anotlwr important material used in the laundry is soap. 
In i)Ul-ehasilg soaI), it is safer fo ehoose the make of some 
well-known firm, who have a reputation fo lose if their 
produefs are hot good ; and for anything stronger thau 
soap, if is better fo buy sal-soda and use if knoving]y 
than fo trust to the vari,3us packages so extensive]y 
advertised. Washing sodtt shoul,1 alwtys be dissolved in 
a separate vessel, and a,lded fo the water fo be used. 
Ammoni may be used, but ifs too fr('quent use will 
yellow bl_aehed fabric. Borax is an effeetual clcansr, 
disinfectant and bleacher. If is more expensive thal 
alnnonia or soda, bu is the safes alkali to use. Turpen- 
fine is valuable in removing grease ; 1 tbsl), fo a quart of 
water will serve for washing silks and other delicate 
materials. It should never be used in hot water. 
Rerrwviag Stains.--All spots and stains should be 
tak«,n out before fle clothes are put into the general 
wash fo be treated with soai). Fruit staius are the most 



136 DOMESTIC SCIEN'CE. 

frequent and the most indelible, when neglected. The 
composition of fruit juice is readily dissolved by boiling 
water. Stretch the ætained part over an earthen dish 
and pour boiling water upon the stain until it disappears. 
If fruit stains are allowed fo remain, they will require 
an acid, or in some cases a bleaching liquid like chloride 
of lime fo remove them. Wine stains should be 
immediately covered with a thick layer of salt. Boiling 
milk may be used for taking out wine or fruit stain 
Medicine stains usually yield to alcohol. Iodine dissolves 
in ether or chloroform. 
Coffee, tea and cocoa stain badly; the latter, if neglected, 
will resist to the destruction of the fabric. These ail 
contain tannin, besides various coloring matters, and are 
" fixed "' by soap and water. Clear boiling water will 
often remove fresh coffee and tea stains, although it is 
safer to sprinkle the stains with borax and soak in cold 
water first. An alkaline solution of great e and 
convenience is Javelle water. It will remove stair and 
is a general bleacher. It is composed of 1 lb. of sal-soda 
with ¼ lb. of chloride of lime in 2 quarts of boiling 
water. When the substances bave dissolved as much as 
they will, and become cool and settled, pour off the clear 
liquid and bottle it for use. Be careful hot to allow any 
of the solid portions fo pass into the bottle. Use the 
dregs fr scouring unpainted woodwork, or fo cleanse 
waste pipes When a spot is found on a white table- 
cloth place under if an inverted plate. Apply Javelle 
water with a soft tooth brush (the use of the brush pro- 
tects the skin and the nails). Rub gently till the stain 
disappears, then rinse in clear water and tinally in 
ammonia. Blood stains require clear cold or tepid water; 



SUGGESTIONS FOR YOUNG HOUSEKEEPERS. 137 

hoç water and soap render the red coloring lllattcr lss 
soluble. When the stain is nearly gone soap and hot 
water may be used. Stains from meat juice should be 
treated in the saine way. Vlletl blood is mixe«l with 
mucous, as in the case of handk«'chiefs, if is well to soak 
the stains for SOltm hours in a solution of sali and cold 
water--2 tablespoonfuls fo a quart. Grass stains dissolve 
in alcohol. If applied inllncdiately, alnlllonia and watcr 
will sometimes wasb thelll out. 
The following methods have proved successful, and 
may be tried where colors are likely to be affected by 
alcohol. Molasses, or a paste of soap and cooking soda 
may be spread over the stain and lcft for some hours, or 
the stain nlay be kept moist in the sunshilm mltil the 
green color bas changed to brown, when it will wash out 
in pure watcr. Mil,lew requiresdifferent treatment from 
auy prviously considered. Strong soap suds, a layer of 
sort soap and pulvcrized chalk, or one of chalk aud salt, 
are all effective, if in addition the moisteucd cloth be 
subjccted to strong sunlight, which kills the plant and 
bleaches the fibre. Javelle watcr nmy be tried in cases 
of advanccd growth, but success is hOt alwa-s assured. 
Some of the animal and vegetable oils may be taken out 
by soap and cold water, or dissolved in naphtha, chloro- 
form, ether, etc. Some of the vegetable oils are soluble 
in hot alcohol (care being taken that the temperature be 
hot raised to the poilt of igniting). Vaseline stains 
should be soaked in kerosene before water and soap 
touch them. 
Ink spots on white goods are the saine in character as 
on colored fabrics. Where the ilik is an iron compound, 
t]le stain may be treated with oxalic, muriatic or hot 



138 DOMESTIC S('I EN'CE. 

tartaric acid, applied in the same manner as for iron 
rust stains. N'o definite rule can be given, for some inks 
are affecte«l by stroug alkalies, others by aci,ls, while 
some will ,lissolve in clear water. Red iron ru.st spot.s 
must be trcated with aci,1. Fill an eartlmn dish two- 
thirds full of hot water and stretch the stained cloth over 
this. Have two other dishes with clear water in one and 
ammonia water in the other. The steam from the hot 
watcr will furnish the heat and moisture fax'orable for 
chemical action. Drop a little muriatic acid on the stain; 
let it remain a laoment, then ]ower the cloth into the 
c]ear water. Repent unti] the stain disappears. Rinse 
carefu]]y in the clear water and finally ilmnee in the 
ammoni: water, that any excess of acid may bc neutra]- 
ized and the fabric protected. Salt and ]emon juice are 
often suflïcicnt f,r a slight stain. 
3Itny spot.s appear upon white goods, which re.semble 
those ma, le by iron ast, oî the fabrics themselves acquire 
 y,.ll,wish ting« This i.s the result of the use of blueing 
and soap, where tlm clothes bave been imperfectly tqnsed. 
Therefore, if all dirt is re.moved, and the cl,thes thor- 
ough]y rinse,-I from ail soap or alkalies use,1 in removing 
the dirt, and exposed for a long time fo air and sun«hine, 
the use of blueing i.s unnecessary. In citiês, where con- 
veniences for drying and bleaching in the sunshine are 
fow, a thorough bleaching two or three rimes a year is a 
eces.ity; but in the country it is wiser to abolish all use 
of blueing and let the sun, in its action with moisture 
and the oxygen of the air, keep the c]othes white and 
[»ure. Freezing aids in bleaching, for if retains the 
moisture upon which the sun can act so much longer. 
When c]ean grass, dew and sunshine are hOt available, 



SUGGESTIt»NS FoR Y()I'NG HOUSEKEEPERS. 139 

use a b|eaching powder. Directions for the use of the 
powder usua!ly accompany tl,e can in which itis bought. 
Care n, us be taken o comp]ee]y rinse out the aci,l 
present in the pow&r. Grease is more quick]y actc,l 
un by hot water than by cold, but other organic mattcr 
is fixed by the hot water. An effective mcthod is to soak 
thoroughly the most soiled p,,rtion of the clothes, fold 
these togethcr towards the centre, roll the whole tightly 
and ak in col,l water. The water sh,,uld just o»vcr the 
artich-s. In this way the soap is kept whcre itis most 
nt.e,le,1, and hot washe,l away before it has ,1,me ifs work. 
Whcn the elothes are unrolled, the dire may be washed 
out with lcss rubbing. Too long soaing, whcn a strong 
soap is use, I, will weaken the fabric. 

Wlwther to boil clothes or hot, depends largely upon 
the purity of the materials used and the care exercised. 
Many feel that the ad,litional disinfection which boiling 
insures, is an element of cleanness hot to be disr«.gar, le,1, 
while others insist that boiling yellows the clothes. This 
yellowness may be caused by impure matcrial in the 
soap, the deposit of iron from the water or the 1,oiler; 
the imperfect washing of the clothes, that is, thc organic 
,,atter is hot thorou.ghly removed. The safer 1,rocess is 
to put the clothes into cold water, with little or no soap, 
let the temperature fise gradually fo boiling point and 
remain thcre for a f,.w minutes. Soap is more readily 
dissolved by hot than by cold wat,.r, hcnce the boiling 
should heIp in the COml,lete removal of the soap, and 
should precede the rinsin.g. O,,e tablespoonful of l»,rax 
fo every galh,n of water a,lded to each boilerful, serres as 
a bleacher and disinfectant. Scalding or pouring boiling 



140 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

water over the clothes is hot so effectual for their disin- 
fection as boiling, because the temperature is so quickly 
loweld. 
The main points in laundry cleansing seem tobe: (1) 
The removal of all stains; (2) Sort water and a good 
quality of soap ; (3) The use of alkalies in solution only ; 
(4) N,»ç t,o ]mç nor too much water, while the soap is 
aeting on the dirt; (5) Thorouzh rin.ing, that all alkali 
may be rcmove,l; (6) Long exposure to sunlight, the best 
bleaeher an,l ,lisinfeetant. 

WASHING OF WO«)LLENS. 
A|l wool goods require the greatest care h washing. 
The diff,.rent watel used should be of the saine tempera- 
ture, and never tçx) hot to be borne eomfortably by the 
ha,ds. Soap should always be used in the form of a 
solution. No soap should be rubbed on the fabrie, a.nd 
only a g-od white sap, free from resin, or a sort potash 
soap is allowable. 3Iake eaeh water slightly soapy, and 
leave  very little in the fabrie at the last rinsing, in 
or, let to furnish a dressing as nearly like the original as 
possible. Ammonia or krax is sometimes used in pre- 
h«'enee to soap. For pure white flannel borax is the 
most satisfaetory, on aeeount of its bleaehing quality. 
,)nly enough of any alkali should be used fo make the 
water X»_l-y sort. 
Wool fibres collect mueh dust, and should therefore be 
thoroughly brushed or shaken belote the fabrie is put 
into tbe water. Woollen fabrles shouhl be eleansed bi" 
squeezing, and hot by rubbing. Wool should hot be 
wrung by hand. Either run the fabrie smoothly through 



SUGGESTIONS FOR YOU'G HOUSEKEEPERS. 141 

a wringer or squeeze the water out, so that the fibres mty 
hot become twisted. Woollen articles may be dried more 
quickly by rolling the article tightly in a thick, dry 
towel or sheet, and squeezing the who]e till ail moisture 
is absorbe& Shake the article thoroughly before pltc- 
ing fo dry. Woollen goods should hOt be allowe,1 to 
freeze, for the teeth become knotted and hard. 

COLORED COTTONS. 
Colored cottons should have their colors fixed before 
washing. Salt will set most colors, but the proccss nmst 
be repeated at each washing. Alum sers the colors per- 
manently, and af the saine rime r«mders the fabric less 
combusçible, if used in strong solution after tbe final 
rinsing. Dish cloths and dish towels must be kepç cl,,an 
as a matter of health, as well as a neeessity for eh.an, 
bright tableware. The greasy dish eloth furnishes a 
most favorable field for the growth of germ If ,ust 
be washed with soap and hoç water and dried thoroughly 
eaeh rime. Ail sueh eloths should form parç of the 
weekly wash and reeeive ail the disinfeetion possible, 
with soap, hot water and long drying in the sunshine 
and open air. Beware of the disease-breeding, greasy, 
damp, dish eloth hung in a, warm, dark plaee. Oven 
towels, soiled with soot, ete., may be soaked over night 
in just enough kerosene to eover, then washed in eold 
water and soap. 
Laundry tuhs should be carefully washed and dried. 
Wooden tubs, if kept in a dry place, should be turned 
upside dom, and have the bottoms eovered with a little 
waer. The rubber rollers of he wringer may be kept 
elean and white by rubbing them with a, elean eloth and 



a few drops of kerosene (coal oil). Ail waste pipes, from 
that of the kitchen sink to that of the refrigerator, 
become foul vith grease, lint, dust and other organie 
matters which are the result of bacterial action. They 
are sources of contamination fo the air of the entire 
h,mse an,1 to the food supply, thereby endangering 
health. 
Al] bath, wash basin and water-c]oset pipes shou]d be 
flushed generously (as stated in  previous chapter) once 
a day af least. The kitchcn sink pipe and lam»]ry pipes 
shouhl have a thorough c]eaning with a strong boi]ing 
solution of washing soda daily, and  monthly flushing 
with crude potash. The soda solution should be used 
for c]eansing the drain pipe of the refrigerator. 

CAt/ING FOR INVALIDS. 

One of the first consi,lerations in caring for an invalid 
is the vontilation of the siek room. Care must ge taken 
tlmt the air is hot vitiated by anything in the room, sueh 
as a kerosene lamp, wilted eut flowers, soiled elothing, 
etc. The bed should be so arranged as fo avoid a dnfft 
---espeeially when airing the room. If thê room is too 
small to allow this, a very good way to protect the 
patient is to raise an umbrel]a and place it over the head 
and shoulders ; over this puç a blanket while the room is 
being aired; allowing it fo remain until the room has 
reached the dosired temperature again. :Never turn the 
wick of a lamp below the point of free combustion in 
the room of either sick or well, as the odor is hot only 
disa'eeable but injurious. 



CARING F[»R INVALIDS. 143 

One of the most important essentials in a sick room is 
perfcct clanliness of the room, the bed linen and cloth- 
ing of the patient, lTevêr air or dry cloths or gannents 
in the sick room. Covr the broom with a damp flannel 
cloth in swping, so as to avoid noise and prçvcnt the 
dust from rising. Avoid noise in placing coal on the 
tire by putting the coal in  paper bag, placing bag and 
ail upon the tire. Do hOt allow loud talking or discus- 
sion in the sick rooln ; neithr is whispering dcsirable, as 
it is apt fo irritate the patient. Do hot consult the 
patient about the food, but see that tempting, whole- 
some varieties are provided, in accor, lance with the 
doctor's ordrs concerning the diet. Sel've food in small 
quantitis, and eit]mr hot or cold, as the article may 
require. A warm dish which should be hot, and a tepid 
drink, or food, which shouhl be col,l, is one of the most 
objectionable and unappetizing forms of scrving food. 
Do not allow fresh fruit, which is intended for the 
patient, to remain in the sick room, but keep in a cool 
place and serve when needed. Never visit a sick room 
when in a olent perspiration or with an empty stomach, 
as the system at that time is nore susceptible fo con- 
taon. 
One of the most important qualifications in  nurse is 
a thorough knowle,lge of the nature, use and digesti- 
bility, as wll as the best methods of preparing the 
different kinds of food, so as fo adapt them to the 
different f«)rms of disease. In some cases, when the 
system bas been overtaxed, either mentally or physi- 
cally, a complete test is necessary, and the diet should be 
food which mrely satisfies the hunger--neither stimu- 
lating nor especially nourishing. Such foods colne under 



the head of gruels, soups, jellies, fruit and drinks. On 
the other hand when a patient has become wasted from 
a long continued illness and requires building up, more 
nourishment is required to supply the waste. In some 
cases the food must be given in concentrated form. Milk 
is one of the most valuable foods in this class; some- 
rimes if requires the addition- of a little pepsin in order 
to facilitate digestion ; sometimes the addition of a pinch 
of salt makes milk hot only more agreeable to the 
patient, but aids digestion. Eggs, either lightly boiled 
or in e¢(- n_,- are easily digested and very nourishing. 
Meat and milk soups, farina and oatmeal oTuel, port 
wine jclly, alhumen an, l milk (which is the white of egg 
and milk shaken together), and in some cuses a bit of 
carefully broiled steak or chop, with dry toast, are suit- 
able foods for this class of patient. In convalescence, 
any well cooked, easily digested food may be given. 
Fried food, rich puddins and pastry must be careful]y 
avoide,1. 
People with consumptive tendencies should eat whole- 
some, easily digeste,l food, with plenty of fat, such as 
cream, butter, fat of bacon and of roast beef, nmtton, 
olive oil, salads, cornmeal and cereals, and take plenty of 
outdoor exercise. Soups which bave in them cream or 
milk are better for invalids than those containing a 
grvater amount of gelatine. A fev simple recipes are 
given, which are suitable for invalids. 

]EVERAGES. 
B«,,'l«y W«,te'.--Take 2 ounces of learl barley and 
wa.sh well with cold water at least 2 or 3 rimes. Put 
into a saucepan with 1 pint of water, and allow if fo 



CARING FOR INVALIDS. 145 

boil for 20 minutes closely covered. Strain and sweeten, 
and flavor with lemon juice ; a little lemon peel may bc 
added while boiling if desired. 
Apple Wate'.--Take 2 or 3 fart apples. Aftcr baking, 
put them in a bowl and pour over thcm 1 cup of 
boiling water, strain and sweeten fo faste; serve when 
cold. 
Flax Seexl Tea.--One-half cupful of flax seed--which 
has been carefully washcd in cold water--to 1 quart 
of boiling vater; boil slowly 30 minutes, move fo the 
back of the stove a,d allow if to remain l0 or 15 
minutes longer. Strain, and flavor fo faste with lemon 
juice and sugar. 
JLemonade.--Slice 1 lemon, add 1 tablespoonful «d sugar, 
press the lemon and sugar, a,I,l 1 cup of boiling water. 
Strain and serve hot or eold as required. 
Orange Water.--Made the saine as lemonade. 

MEAT EXTRACTIVES. 

B,efJuice is prepare,l ly broiling until the meat is 
heated through, then plaei,g if lu a lemon squcezer and 
pressing until all the juiee is extraete,1. H,.at until 
warm enough tobe palatable, a,ld a little salt, and by 
way of variety if may be poured over a sliee of hot dry 
toast. 

Beef T«a.--Cut juicy pieces of steak--the round steak 
is the best--into small pieces, cover with col,1 watcr and 
heat gradually fo 160 F. Allow it to remain at this 
temperature 10 or 15 minutes. Press, strain, and flavor 
with sal and pepper. 
10 



Beef Tea (IVo. 2).--Put a pound of finely minced beef 
into a glms fruit jar, add a pint of cold water. Let it 
stand for an hour, stirring and pressing occasionally. 
Place the jar in a kettle of water; place over the tire 
ald allov the water fo reach boiling point. Move back 
where the water will just simmcr for an hour, keeping 
the jar closely covered. Strain the beef tea through a 
fine wire straiuer; allowing the fine sediment to pass 
through, which should be drunk with the li«luid. Flavor 
with sait. (For an especially strong beef stimulant, see 
reciI»e for Bouillon, in a former cl»apter.) 
Bee.fE.sence.--(This method is highly recommended.) 
One ounce of finely chopped fresh beef, free from fat; 
pour over it 8 ounces of soft water, add 5 or 6 drops of 
dilute hydrochloric acid, and 50 or 60 grains of common 
salt, stir well, and leave for 3 hours in a cool place. 
Strain the fluid throu£,h a hair sieve, pressing the meat 
slightly ; a«l,ling gradually toward the end of the strain- 
ing, 2 ouaces of watcr. The li,luid is of  bright red 
color, tasting like soup. It should be sêrved cold, in a 
small quantity at a time. If preferred warm it must hot 
be put on the tire, but heated in a covered vessel placed 
in hot water. 
(iclcen Broth.--Singe an,1 clean a small chicken. 
One-half of the chicken may be used fl»r broth, and the 
other hall for broiling or a fricassee. Disjoint, and cut the 
meat into small pieces. Break or crush the bones. Dip 
the feet into boiling water and scald until the skin and 
nai]s will peel off (as the feet contain gelatin). Cover the 
meat, feet md bones with cold water ; heat very slowly, 
and simmer till the meat is tender. A few minutes 



CARING FOR INVALIDS. ]4,7 

before removing from the tire add sait and pepper to 
taste, also ½ tea.spoonful of sugar. Strain, and when c,»ol 
remove the fat. When needed, heat the necessary 
quantity, aud if desired very clcar add the shcll and 
white of 1 etc Let this boil slowly 3 or 4 minutes. 
Skim and strain through a fine cloth. A little lemc, n 
juice may be added to vary the flavor. This nay 
poured into small cups and kep in a cool place; or if 
the patient can take it some of the breast meat inay be 
cut iuto small pieces and moulded with it. If the broth 
is served hot, it should hot be cleared with the egg. 
_lwttoez B roth.--Chop 1 pound of lean,j uicy mutton very 
fine; pour over it 1 pint of cold water. Let it stand 
until the water is very red, then heat it slowly. Allow 
it to simmer 10 minutes. Strain, season, and if liked 
thick, 2 tablespoonfuls of sort boiled rice may be ad,led : 
,»rit may be tlfickened with a little cornstarch wet with 
cold water and stirred into the hot broth. Serve very 
hot. If there is hot enough rime fo cool the broth and re- 
heat, the fat nmy be removed by using a picce of tissue, 
coarse brown or blotting paper, which, by passing over 
the surface, will remove any fat which cannot be taken 
off with a spoon. 
Oatneal Gruel.--To 1 quart of boiling water add 2 
tablespoonfuls of oatmeal, salt fo taste. ]3oil 1 hour, 
strain and serve with or without milk. Another method 
is fo cover the oatmeal with cold water. Stir well; let 
it settle, then pour off the mealy water into a saucepan. 
Then boil the water. 
Egg Soup.--Put 1 ounce c,f sago with ½ pint of milk 
into a double boiler, and cook 20 minutes. Strain 



through a sieve and add ½ pint of beef extract (or 
Bouillon). When hot take it from the tire and stir 
gradually into it the yolks (well beaten) of 2 egc,s. eason 
to taste, and serve. Chicken or mutton broth may be used. 
Albznvn ad Millc.--Put the white of 1 egg into  
pint of milk. Pour into a pint fruit jar, screw on the top 
tightly and shake well for 1 minute, when it should be 
light and smooth. Serve at once. A pinch of sait may 
be added if desired. 
Egg-.Vog.Beat 1 egg until very light, add 2 teaspoon- 
fuls of sugar, and beat again; add  cup of colà milk, 
mix well, and if ordered, 2 teaspoonfuls of brandy may 
be added. A pinch of salt adde, l fo the yolk of the egg 
makes it more pa]atable. 
O'age Soup.--Soak the juice of an orange, ] of the 
rated tin,I, and 1 teaspoonful of lemon juice for ½ bout. 
,train, and make the li,luid up to a cupful with water. 
Bring fo boiling point and adà two level tespoonfuls of 
arrowroot, moistened with a very little cold water, stir- 
ring constantly until iL thickens. When it reaches the 
boiling point, add 1 tablespoonful of sugar, turn into a 
h,wl and stand away fo cool. Serve very cold. (Any 
tart fruit juice may be used for this soup.) 
Arrou'root Grel.Dissolve 2 level teasioonfuls of 
arrowroot in a little cold water, add 1 cap of boiling 
water, cook for a few secon«ls; take from the tire, add a 
tablespoonful of su-tr, 1 tablespoonful of lemon juice. 
{One egg may be beaten, white and yo]k separately, until 
very light, mix them carefully and pour over the egg 
slowly one pint of hot arrowroot gruel, ruade as above; 
stir until well mixed.) 



CARING FOR INVALIDS. 149 

Rice Water or Jelly.--Pick over and wash carefully 
2 tblespoonfuls of rice, and cook in water until the riee 
is dissolved. A,l,1 sait and sugar fo faste. If inten,1,_.,1 
to jelly, add lcmon juice and strain into n, mou],l. Serve 
col,1 with cream an,l sugar. If fo be used as a drink, ad,1 
enough hot water fo make a rhin liqui,1, an,1 boil longer. 
A little stick cinnumon ma, y l»e a,l,led a few minutes 
before straining. Serve hot or col,l. 
Stewed Figs.--Take some ehoiee figs, wash, then 
eover ri,cm with col,1 water. Soak over night. In the 
morning bri,g them fo boi]ing point, ,n,] keep thcm over 
the lire, just simmering for 20 minutes, or until the figs 
are plul,,p a,,1 sort. Lift them out earefully, and boil 
down the liquor until if forms a syrup. Pour this over 
the figs and serve eold. Whipped or plain eream ,,ay be 
served with them. 
Jellied (7iclen Take a you,,g, tender chicken. Pre- 
pare and disjoint if as for a fricassee. Put a bay lêaf, a 
stock of cêlery about 4 inches long, an,1 2 whole 1-êppêr 
corns in the bottom of a bowl. Then put in the chickeu. 
Stand t],e bowl in a pot of boiling water, being careful 
that the steam slmll not drip, or t],e water boil over into 
the chicken. Cover the pot closely and keep t],e water 
boili,g until tl,e n,eat is ten,ler enough fo allow the 1)o,,es 
fo slip out. Remove the skin and bones and put 
remaindêr of the chicken into  pint bowl or moul,1. 
Semson the remaining liquor with sait, and strain over 
the meat. Stan,1 in a cool place t, harden. (Do hot add 
water fo the chicken when cooking.) 
Raw Meat £«nd.wiche¢.--Three ounces of raw beef, 
which may be chopped ve W fi,m and rubbed t),mug-h a 



] 50 DOMESTIC SCIEN'CE. 

hair sieve or scraped from a slice of steak. Mix with il 
1 ounce of fine bread crumbs, 1 teaspoonful of sugar, 
pepper and sali fo taste. Spread i between thin slices 
of brown or white bread and butter. (A few drops of 
lemon juice r,my be added if the flavor i. liked.} 
Broiled Steak, Hambzr 9 ,S'teak, Broiled White Fish, 
Stews, Etc. (See reeipes in preee,ling ehapters.) 

A FEW GENERAL HINTS FOR SCHOOL 
CHILDREN. 
"Too much attention cannot be ,iven by parents fo the 
,liet of school chi]dren, or by teachers to the diet of 
pupils under their care in boar,|ing schools and colleges. 
The average age of school children is from six to sixteen 
years. During this time both mind and body are 
undergoing development. Throughout school period the 
growth of the body is continued until almost completed. 
There are unusual demands, therefore, upon the functions 
of absorption and assimilation. The food must be 
abundant, and of the character fo furnish new tissue, and 
to yield ener,- in the fc)rm of heat and muscu]ar activity. 
The food shoul,1 also contaln salts of lime fo meet the 
requirements of formation of the bones and teeth. Many 
children acquire habits of dislike for certain articles of 
food, which become so fixed in later life that they find it 
very inconvenient, especially vhen placed in circum- 
stances, as in travelling, where one cannot always obtain 
the accustomed diet; if therefore is unwise to cultivate 
such habits, which are often a serious obstacle fo normal 
development. 



GE.ERAL HINTS FOR 8CHO(}L CHILDREN. 151 

" A physician is often baffted in the treatment of a 
severe disease by the vitiated taste of the patient, lIany 
cases of anoemi« and chlorosis, which are so commonly 
seen in youJg girls, are directly traccab]e fo a faulty 
diet. It should be the imperative duty of all teachers 
to cousider the responsibility of rightly developing the 
physical constitutions of those etrusted fo their care. 
They should relnember that the mind keeps on develop- 
ing long fter the body, and tha the period under 
discussion is one in which the constitution of the 
idividual is e/stablished f,»r the -emainder of lire. At 
this stage success in digesti«»n ad assimilation is of 
greater importance than success in ment«d attainments." 
(Thompson.) 
A impooEant consideration in school diet is to avoid 
monotony, which becomes so common from economic 
reasous, or more oft,_.n from carclessness. It is so much 
easler to yield to routine and force of habit than to study 
the question. The 1,ours for sîu, ly and for neals should 
be so regulated that sufflcicnt rime will be allowed 
before eacl nmrl for children to wash and 1)repare them- 
selves comfortably without going fo the table excited by 
hurry, aud they should be required fo remain at the table 
for a fixed rime, and no allowed to hastily swallow their 
food in order fo complete au unfiished task or gaine. 
An interval of af 1,'ast hall an hour should intervene 
after meals before an S- mental exertion is required. Con- 
stant nibbling af food betveen meals should be forbidden ; 
i destr,»ys he ai)petite, iicreases the sali,ca, and inter- 
feres with gastric digestion. 
The habit of chewing gum cannot be too strongly con- 
demned, both for the reason ven in the loreceding 



15 .9 t)l .IIC SCIENCE. 

sentence and for ifs effect upon the muscles and nerves. 
It is being more and more rea|ized by the public in 
general, that the brcaking down of health af school is 
more often due to impovershed nutrition than to over- 
work. Delicate chihlren should hot be allowed too long 
],terva|s between meals, as-for instance, the evening 
meal at six o'c|ock and breakfast the following morning 
at seven or half past. A g|ass of milk and  piece of 
whole wheat bread and butter should be givenif they 
awakendurng the night De|icate cM|dren whose 
api»tites are poor, and who do hot do proper justice to 
their r-u]ar meals, should be ven an extra, al]owance 
of hot broth or hot milk wth bread anti butter, between 
nlea]s. 
The_se rulcs are ai»plicable in cases of children who, 
dur]ng one or two years, seem to develop with extraordin- 
ary rapdity, «rowng sometimes two inches or more in 
six months. The d_mands of this rapid growth must be 
mt by proper nutrition, or serious subsecluent impair- 
ment of vitality may result. Such children shoulcl have 
thcir meals ruade tempting by good cooking and pleasant 
vaiety, as well as an aTeeab|e appearance of the food. 
M,_at -hich is carved in unsightly masses and vegetables 
wh]ch are sodden and tasteless will be refused, and an 
i|| attemlt is ruade to supply the deficency in proler 
f,o:l by eating indigestible candy, nuts, etc. Children 
often have no natural l-lSng for meat, and prefer 
puddings, pastry or sweets when they can obtai them ; 
]t is therefore more important that meat and other 
who|esome foods should be made attractive to them at 
the age when they need it. 



SUGGESTION'S FOR SCHOOL CHILDRENS DIET. 153 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN'S DIET. 
If erly rising is insisted upon,  child should never 
be set t any task before breakfat, especilly in winter; 
and if if is hot expedient to serve  full breakfasç af 
half-past six or seven, the child should be ven  bowl 
of milk and bread, a cup of coco with  roll or other 
lighç food. t,'eakfmst nmy be served later, after the 
firsç exercises of the morniug, and shoul,l co,sist of 
porridge of wheaten rits, hominy, fish, eggs, fruit (raw or 
cooked), bread and butter. Din,mr, which should a]ways 
b, served near the mid«]le of tbe day, shou],] comprise 
meat, potatoes, one or two green vegetables, some form 
of light pudding or sweet. Supper, if is generally ad- 
mitted, should comprise ee.sily digested articles of food ; 
sueh substances s pastry, eheese and meats are better 
omitted; if should eonsist of a poTidge, with milk or 
eream, or a light, farinaeious pudding of riee, tapioca or 
sgo, with bread and butter, and some simple form of 
preserve, stewed apples or prunes, or very light, plain 
cake. A good bowl of nutritious brothr soup--with 
bread or eraekers, may be substitutt«l for the porridge 
or pudding. If will sometimes be round best to serve 
this meal ab seven or half-past seven o'elock; in this 
ease the ehild should be ven a sliee of bread and butter 
or a glass of milk (drinking if slowly), af half-past four 
or iîve. 
Some of the more inportant articles of school diet 
require special mention ; the following extract from Dr. 
Thompson's Practical Dietectics may prove helpful :-- 
Bread.---" ]3read, as  rule, should be ruade of whole 
mel, but must not be too coarse. The oevantage of this 



]54 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

bread for children eonsists in its containing  larger pro- 
portion of salts, which they need, tha,u is round in refined 
vhite flour, an«l butter should be freely served vith if to 
supply the defieieney of rats which exist ix meat. Çhil- 
dren need fat, but they do hot digest meat fat well, as a 
rule, an,l are vory apt to dislike it. Thoy q]l often 
tal(e suet pu«l«ling, however, when |lot lnUtton fat who]ly 
disag'ees with thenL" 
MiI];.--"Milk should be freely supplied, hot ofly in 
the form of puddins and porri,lges, but as an oeeasional 
be'erage, an«l chi]dren shou]d be ruade fo under.tand 
that whe ]mno'y, they ean obtain a g]ass of milk, or a 
bowl of cr«tekers or brea¢] and milk, for the asking. 
(çhambers says, ' The ])est luuch that a growing young 
man ean bave is  dish of roast potatoes, we]l buttered 
and peppere,l, and a d'aft of dlk.' " 
]leat.--" Meat may be ven tx'iee  day, but hot 
oftener. If lnay someti,es be advisable fo ,i-e if but 
once a day 'hen fish or eggs are suppli«]; if should, 
howe-er, be ,riven at least once daily, to rapidly O'owing 
children." 
St,'eet.s'.--"The ,q'eater nmnber of ehild.ren |lave  
natural eraving for sweets." 
The energy developed in ative ehildhood neeessitates 
the eonsumption of a larger proportion of sugar than is 
required by adults. The ertving of ehildren for con- 
fections, ean,ly, etc., furnishes a true indieatio of the 
aetual requiremeuts of nature, and if lnUSt be admitted 
tlmt a certain amount of wholesome eandy hOt only does 
mosb ehildren 11o barre, but nay serve them as an 
exeeilent food. Tle main ditfieulty vith sueh forms of 



SUGGESTIONS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN'S DIET. 155 

sugar, however, is that chi|dren are not fu,'nished with a 
propcr p,vportion of sugar with thcir mca]s, and the 
meals themselves are hot so rcollated as ix) pre'ent/heir 
becoming very hungry between rimes; consequent]y, if 
they can obtain candy, whicl, satisties them for the rime, 
they are ve,')" apt to eat too much, with the result of 
producing more or less dyspcpsia and diminishing thc 
normal appetite. Alcohol in evcD form should 
absolutely exclu,lcd. If given during early youth, it is 
particularly prone to deve]op a taste which lnay become 
Ul,cont,'ollable in later ye'.aïs. (Children should not 
indulge in tea and cottlîe.) 
E.,'e;'clse.--As  general rule, active muscular exercise 
in childrcn distm'bs their digestive process far less than 
mental effort, when taken immediately aÏter meals ; and 
every adult is familiar with the romping which children 
can undertake 8traightway aft+r dira,er, oftcn, though 
not always, with impunity, whcreas  proportionate 
amount of exercise on the part (,f an adult might pro- 
duce  severc dyspeptic attack. 
Much of the headache and inattention of pupil8 during 
school hours is the direct result of an ill-regulated diet, 
or from vitiated appetites. 



156 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

INFANTS' DIET. 
One of the most important subjects included in a 
domestic science course of study is the feeding and cre 
of infants. A subject requiring specil intelligence and 
c«nsideration ; one which embodies the condensed infor- 
mntion of the pr,ceding chapters, and is the foundution 
upon which the future physical structure is built. 
Itis not upon the mother alone thnt the bnby depends 
for care ami attention. Many young girls, especia]]y 
clder sisters and nurse-maids, bave this responsibility 
[)|tced upon them when they are litt]e more than 
chihlren tiemselves. To tlese, as well as t young 
mothcrs, the following suggestions may prove helpful. 
T|le first demand of an infant is for food, and upon 
the Tality and «luantity of the atoEicle provided dçpends 
the hcalth of the child, as well as the comfort of the 
household. 
:Milk is the on]y food required by an infant until it is, 
af least, sevcu «»r eight months ohl, or until sufficient 
salivais secreted to assist digestion; some authorities 
say one year, others until the chi]d has sufficient teeth 
with w]Sch to masticate food. If nature's supply is 
hot avai]able, or sufficient, the best substitute is cow's 
milk. As cow's milk contains less sugar of milk, and 
fat (cream), than ||uman milk, these must be supplied. 
Being more acid than alkaline, this must be corrected by 
the use of lime water. 
There is more casein (curd)in cow's milk than in 
mother's milk, therefor,, • water musb be addcd to reduce 
this. The fo]lowing proportions bave been submitted as 

III 



INFANTS' DIET. 157 

a digestible form of preparing cow's milk for young 
infants (Dr. Meigs):-- 
Cream, 2 tbsps. I Lime water, 2 tbsps. 
Milk, I tbsp. I Milk-sugar water, 3 tbsps. 
One quarter of this amount fo be given every two 
hours during the day, and once or twice af night. 
Aftcr the baby is a week old, the quantity lnay be 
increased to one-half af each meal; af two months the 
whole amount prepared may be given at once. 
The proportion of milk should be gradually increased, 
and the water and cream decreased, until af two months 
old the proportion should be :-- 
3 tbsps, milk. I 1 tbsp. lime water. 
1 tbsp. creaoE I 3 tbsps, sugar water. 
Vhen six months old the quantity of milk is doubled. 
It should be increased every day until ten tablespoonfuls 
are given af a feeding. 
BARLEY WATER. 
2 tbsps, pearl barley. ] 1 pt. boiling water. 
Wash the barley carefully. Pour over it the boiling 
watcr. Let if simmer for two hours. Strain and sweeten 
with a pinch of sugar of milk. 
MILK-SUGAB" WATER. 
 oz. sugar of milk. [  pt. boiling water. 
Diolve, and keep cloly covere& It will not keep 
long, so should be ruade when required to use. 
LIME WATER. 
Take a lump of lime weighing about one ounce. Put 
in a bottle with a quart of cold water (wh]ch has been 



158 ................ . 

boiled). Shake the bottle well until the lime is dissolved, 
and let if stand ïor 12 hours. Pour the clear liquid into 
another bottle, being careïul hot fo «listurb the sediment. 
Keep carefully corked. Water will only absorb  certain 
quantity o[ lime, so there is no danger o[ its being too 
strong. 
As cow's milk is more difflcult to digest than mother's 
milk, it is sometimes necessary to substitute barley water 
in place of the lime water nd milk, using the same 
amount of cream as given in recipe. 

3IALTED :FOOD. 
2 oz. wheat flour or barley meal. I l tsp. extract of malt. 
1 qts. water. 
3Ii the flour to  pste with  little water, gradully 
add  quart of the water; put it in  double boiler and 
boil 10 minutes. Dissolve the malt extract in 4 tbsps. 
of the waer (coldç. Lift out the inner vessel and dd 
the malt and rcmainder of the cold water. Lt it 
stand 15 minutes, replace, and boil again ïor 15 nfinutes. 
Strain through  wire guze strainer. (ttalf this 
quantity may be malle.) 
This I)repartion is used when both barley water and 
lime-xvater disagree. It must always be given with 
milk. It prevents the large tou,.:h curds forming, which 
is such an objectionable feature in using cow's milk, 

PEPTONIZED IILK. 

In cases of especia|ly weak digstion it may be neces- 
sary to peptonize the milk, whieh may be donc as 
follows: Add 5 grains of extraet of panereas and 1.5 



INFANTS' DIET. 159 

grains of baking soda to 1 pint of lnilk. (Tablets of 
panereatin and soda may be use&) 
Mter adding the peptonizing material put tlle lni|k in 
a double boiler or in a vessel whieh may be set in a larger 
one, holding water, as hot as the hand tan bear being 
dipped into quiekly, or about 115 ° Fah. L,.ave the lnilk 
in the hol; water about 20 minutes, then place on the iee. 
If heaed too long the milk will taste bitter. 
The preparation given in reeipe No. 1, or with the 
barley water added, lllll.y be peptonize,l. 

STERILIZED OR PASTEURIZED IILK. 
(,See 3lilk, Chai,ter 
Put the amount of milk re,luired for a meal into pint 
or half pint bottles, allowing f,,r the number of times 
the ehild is to be fed in 24, hours. Use eotton batting 
as a stopper. Place a wire frame, or invert a pel-f«»rated 
tin pie plate, in the bottom of a saueepan; stand the 
bottles on this, pour around them enough water to corne 
well above the milk, eover the saueepan or kettle, and 
when the water b,ils lift the saueepan from the tire and 
allow the bottles to remain in the hot water for 1 hour. 
Keep in the iee box or sand them in eold water until 
needed. If milk is to be use,l during a long journey it 
will be neeessary to repeat the above operation three 
times, letting the milk cool between eaeh rime. 
Unless the milk is perfeetly fresh, and has been 
handled with great eare, it is safer to sterilize or pasteur- 
ize it. The f,rmer, if any doubt is enteoEaind as to the 
quality of the milk, the latter in every case. 



10 DoMESTIC SCIENCE. 

TEMPERATURE OF FOOD. 
Food should be " milk varm," or about 99 ° Fah., when 
ven to a baby. Hot food is very injurious. 

TURSING ][O'I'LES 'D FEEDLNG. 
Have two plain ttles with rubber ps, tlwut tub. 
B,,ttles with ounc and blnfuls marked on them 
tan be purchased, and are  eat conveenee in meur- 
iff the amount of food reqd. 
After using the bottle, empty the remaing nfilk; 
in cold water, then in .scahli# u'ater. 
If particles of milk dhere fo the bottle e coee lt 
or rw potto cut in small pieces. If the glas lks 
clou,ly, add  little ammonia to the water. T the 
rubber toits inside out an,l scrub Sth a stiff bh ; boil 
them every a]teate day for l0 minutes. 
A t,.sohffe cll is 
baby's food, bottles nd rubber 
The ttle should be held, while the baby is feeding, in 
such a position that the p is full of milk. If air is 
suckcd in with the milk smach-ache ll likely rult. 
Starchy food should hot be ven  a chih] until it is 
able fo mticate. (See digestion of starch, Chap. VIII.) 
Arrowroot, cosxh, ce, e., zw't ot be given fo 
i 
FLO 
Put a bowlful of flore" into a strong cloth, tie it up like 
 pud, ling, and place it in  kettle of boiling war. 
Boil for 10 or 12 ho. When boiled tu it out of 



INFANT,'I' DI ET. 161 

the cloth and cuç awty the soft outside coatiug. Whcn 
cool, grate the ha.rd inside portion and use a teaspoonful 
at each feeding, for a baby 8 months old, increa.ing 
the mnount for an older child. This may be prcpare,l 
the saine nmnner as cornstarch or flour. The lon boil- 
ing converts thc starch into dextrine, which is more easily 
digested than starch. This is especially valuable in ca.cs 
of dirrh«a, and may be used instead of brley grucl as 
 food. 
OATMEAL GRUEL 
Pound a cupful of oatmeal in  pestlc or ou a brea, l 
board. Put in a bowl aud pour over it 1 pint of cold 
water. Stir it up, thon let the mixture settle for  fcw 
minutes. Pour off the milky fluid, rcpcat this proce.s. 
Boil this water for an hour, adding a pinch of salt, and 
use t fo dilute the milk instead of water. 
A thicker £q'u¢.l may l»e lnade from oatmeal by allow- 
ing 1 tblesp««mful to a cup of boiling water. Let it 
boil 1 hour, thcu strain through  wire strainer. 

FARINA (RUEL. 
1 tbsp. farina. I A st)k. of salt. 
2 cups boiliug water. 
I 
Cook for 20 minutes ; use as dirccted for oatmeal. 

BEEF JUICE. 
(,e pe,je 1.) 
Beef jaice is sometimcs ordered for delicate babies. 
For a child 9 months oi,l, 1 or 2 tblespoonfuls may be 
ven once  day. 
]1 



162 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

ALBUMINIZED :FooD. 
When milk cannot bc taken, albuminize, l food proves 
an excellent substitute. 
Shake the white of 1 egg with   pint of water 
(filtered or boile«l and cooled)in  glass jar until they 
are thoroughly mixed. Add  few grains of salt. 
Chi]dren do hot require  grcat variety in their food. 
Give one article of diet at a time and sce how if agrces 
before trying another. 
After a chi],l is a year old the various cerea]s may be 
giron as porridge instead of gruel, with the addition of a 
little sugar. 
Remember, all cereals should be thoroughly cooked 
(see page 83). 
]ISCUITS. 
G]uten, soda, oatmeal or Graham biscuits nmy be 
soaked in milk or given a]one. Do hot give the fancy 
or sweet biscuits fo young chi]dren. 

EGGS. 
A properly boiled e (see page 69) may be given 
ex cry alternate day fo  child 1 year old. 

JUNKET. 

Junket is much better for young children than 
custards or puddings, and sometimes aoTees wel| with 
babies. 

Take 1 pint of milk, heat it fo 98 ° Fah., or milk warm. 
Add 1 teaspoonful of rermet and 1 teaspoonful of sugar. 



INFANTS' DIET. 163 

Stir ail together an,1 let if stand in a varm place until if 
becomes as thick as jelly. Remove af once Ix) a cool 
place or whey will appear. 

BAKED POTATOES. 

Potatoes should not be/ziven fo a child under 2 years 
old in any other form than baked. The potash salts are 
the most valuable constituent, and are lost when they 
are peeled and boiled They should be dry and mealy. 
A little salt, lmtter or cream should be added. 

_IA CA_RONI. 
(See pe,je 85.) 
hlacaroni is an excellent foo, l for young children. 

FRUIT. 
Baked apples and the juice of an orange are the only 
fruits which should be given to children under two yers 
of age. 
I ICE. 
Rice is an excellent food for young children, but not 
for infants. 
VENTILATI(N. 
Foul air is injurious fo gown persons, but if is in- 
finitely more dangerous to the sensitive organization of a 
child. Therefore special attention should be given fo the 
ventilation of rooms occupied by a baby (see page 132). 
Fresh air, wholesome food, regular bathing, and lvlenty 
(:ï sleep will insure the normal growth of the average 
baby, and are within reach of every one who bas the 
care of young chikh'en. 



]  DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

The ,,vriter is indebted fo Miss Scovil, Superintendent 
of Newport Hospital, and one of the associate editors of 
the Z.ds' Home Jourd, for many of the above hints 
concerning the «]]et of nfants. 
EMERGENCIES. 
As frequent accidents occur during the performance of 
household duties, a few sugffestions as to how slight 
injuries should be treated may prove useful to the 
yOllng ]tmsekecper. 
Cu«.--A cut shou]d be washed with cold wter, 
covered with a small pari of cotton, bound up, and left 
alone. Shoul,l matter f»rll2, the bandage nmst be taken 
off, thc woun,l bathed with carbolized water, 1-80, and a 
]ittlc. carb,lizcd vaseline sprca, l on a bit »f linen and laid 
ox»_r it. The washing and dressitg shoul,l be repeated 
two or three times a day if thc're is much discharge. 
Bc_i.e«.--A flannel wrung out of vcry hot water, and 
laid on a bruise, relieves the soreness. 
For bruises on the face, apply ice. ]3rown paper wet 
in vimîgar is an old-fasMoned rcmedy. If the skin is 
broken, treat as a wound, with carbolized water and 
carbolized vaseline. 
,pr« is.--Both hot and cold treatment is recommend- 
ed. Immerse the joint in water as hot as can be borne. 
Keep up the temperature by gradually adding more hot 
watcr. ]Let if soak for an hour or more. Then -rap in 
warm flamel, and sxuround witla hot water bags or bottles. 
Stlngs.--]3athe the part in ammonia, or baking soda 
and water; wet a cloth in the saine, and bind over it. 
Be'.,s.--The best houselaold remedies for burns are 
ba'king soda and carbolized vaseline. For slight burns 



LN'FANTS' DIET. ] 6 

mlx the soda to a 1,aste with water, and sprea, l thickly 
over the part ; cover with linen or old cotton. This may 
be kcpt wet by S, lueezing water ov_.r if. If shreds of 
clothing adhere to a burn, they should be soaked with 
oil, and hot pulled off until softencd. If the skin is 
gone, spread carbolized vaseline on linen, and bind on 
the part until the doctor arrives. 
In burns causcd by acids, water shouhl hot be applied 
to the parts. Cover with dry baking soda. 
If caused by an alkali, such as lye, ammonia, or quick- 
lime, use an acid, as vinegar or lemon juice, diluted. 
Poisonig.--For poison ivy, saturate a cl-th in a 
solution of baking soda, or alnmonia and vater, and lay 
over the part. 
When poison has been swalloxved, the first thing fo do 
is to get it out of the stomach. Secon,lly, fo prevent 
what relnains from doing more mischief. Give an 
emetic tt once. One tbsp. of salt in a glass of tepid 
water; 1 tsp. of mustard, or 1 tsp. of powdered alum in 
a glass of tepid water. A tsp. of wine of ipecac, followed 
by varm water. Repeat any of these three or tirer rimes if 
necessary. The quantities given are for children ; larger 
doses may be given to a, lults. Itis well fo give a dose 
of castor oil after the danger is over, fo carry off any 
remnants of the poison that may have lodged in the 
intestines. 
After a poison hes burned the mouth and throat, 
plenty of milk may be ven, also flour, arrowroot, or 
cornstarch gruel. 
For drowning and othcr serious accidents, see Public 
School Physiology. 



1_ li6 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

FURNISHING A CLASS-R()OM. 
The furnishing of a class-room should be so complete 
that each pupil should be able fo attend to the appointed 
task without delay. The furniture should consist of a 
stove, or range, gas stove if more convenient, a hot water 
tank or boiler, sink, table (side), towel rack, 2 dozen 
chairs, or seats with tabler arms, a cupboard or kitchen 
"dresser" for table ware,  large cupboard or arrange- 
ment f,r l«ckers, in which caps, aprons, etc., should be 
kcpt, a large table--horseshoe shape is the most satis- 
factory--with drawers, and space for rolling pin, bread 
board, etc., underneath. The table should be large 
enough fo allow st least 2 ft. 6 in. for each pupil. 
Twenty pupils is the limit of a practice class. On the 
table shouhl be placed af regu]ar intervals, l 0 tas burners 
with ïrame. The teacher's table shou]d stand in the 
opening at the end of the table so that she may see each 
pupil while st work, and when demonstrating may be 
seen by each pupil. 
The following list of utensils will be found sufficient 
for practice work for a class of 20 pupils. 
EA_RTHEN, CHINA AND GLASS WARE. 

1 dinner set. 
'2_ quart pitchers. 
'2_ piut pitchers. 
2 small oval bahing dishes. 
_o small round ba'g dishes. 
4 4-quart bowls, with lipa. 
6 °-quart bowls, with lipa. 
4 1-quart bowlz. 
l. ° baking capa. 
6 kitchen caps. 
2 small platters. 

2 medium size platters. 
2 deep pie plates. 
6 ahallow pie plates. 
o jelly moulds. 
1 teapot. 
1 dozen quart gem jars. 
1 dozen plat gem jars. 
6 4-quart atone jars or erocks 
1 dozen fancy plates, and glass 
dishes for serving. 



FURNISHING A (LASS-ROf).I. 167 

Vo« »DENWARE. 

I wash-board. 
12 small bread boards. 
12 rolling pins. 
2 ehopping trays. 
2 potato mashers. 
1 potato ricer. 
1 water pail. 
1 scrubbing pail. 
! pail or bucket for refuse. 
I flour bucket, with cover. 
6 wooden spoons--small. 
I 2-gallon ice cream freezer. 

i whisk-broom. 
1 crumb pari and brush. 
1 fl,,or scrubbing brush. 
6 small scrubbi,g brushes. 
1 st,)ve brush. 
! pastry brush. 
1 small refrigerator 
• pice boxes. 
Dish mops. 
Lemon squeezers, etc. 

double boilers. 
4-quart kcttles. 
2-quart saucepans. 
1 «tuart saucepans. 
pt. saucepans. 

AGATE WARE. 
2 oral pudding dishes 
1 4-quart preserving kettle. 
1 hand basin. 
i tea kettle. 

1 spider. 
1 griddle. 
I pan for meat. 
1 pan for fish. 
1 meat fork. 

IRON 

'ARE. 
1 can opener. 
1 meat deaver. 
'2_ wooden-han011e,l spoons. 
1 braising pan (cover). 
Soeles, etc. 

TIN ANI» 

2 large graters. 
1 nutmeg grater. 
12 flour dredges. 
]2 measuring cups. 
! funnel. 
1 basting spoon. 
I wire broiler, for toast. 
2 wire broilers, for steak. 
1 wire soap dish. 

XV 1 i',E WARE. 
3 Dorer egg beaters. 
3 small wire straiuers. 
I large wire strainer. 
1 fl,,ur scoop. 
o_ flour sifters. 
I gravy strainer. 
I colander. 
2 dish pans. 
2 2-qt. milk cans. 



168 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

quart meauure. 
pint measure. 
steztmer. 
saiall bread pans. 
small jelly moulAs. 
set gcm pans. 
d,z. muffin rings. 
dustpans. 
plain cake cutters. 

TIN AxI» WHtE W.uE--Contil«ued. 
1 doughnut cutter. 
1 small biscuit cutter. 
1 frying basket. 
1 dipper. 
2 long, shallow cake tins. 
2 egg whiska. 
1 round cake tin. 
1 wire frame. 
1 vegetable cutter. 

1 doz. dish t,,wls. 
2 floor cloths. 
12 holders. 
Cheese cloth. 
Puddmg cloth. 
Need]es. 
Twine. 
Svissors. 
Skewers. 
Screw driwr. 
('orkscrew. 
1 doz. knives m.l [ork. 
Hammer. 

_l IS( "ELLANEOUS. 
Tacka and Nails. 
Ironing sheet and holder. 
Coal scutt]e. 
Fire shovel. 
Coal ieve. 
Ash hod. 
Flat irons. 
Paper for cake tins. 
,Vrapping paper. 
Small tub for laundry work. 
6 tablespoons. 
2 doz. teaspoons. 

While this ,,ay seem a formidable ]ist, if wi]l not be 
round expeusive. Some of the al»ve articles may be 
o,,itted and otl,ers substituted. If must be rcmembered 
that the utensils will be well cared for, consequently will 
last for many years. In country schools, or where gas 
is hot available, oil stores may be used. In some 
s(:hools, where space is limited, one small table is used, 
two or more pupils demonstrating the lesson under the 
supervision of the teacher, the pupils taking this duty in 
alten,ation. The ren,ainder of the class observe and 
take notes. 



FUIRNISHING A CLASS-ROOM. 169 

The cost of material is trifling. It should not average 
more than fifty cents per pupil per armure, and for a 
large number should average less than this amount. 
The Boston school kitchens are, many of them, fur- 
nished af a cost of from 8200 to 8300. A fait are_rage 
cost for Ontario should be about 8175. 



 70 DOMESTIC S('IE\'CE. 

PLANNING AND SERVING MEALS. 
During the last quarter of school work each pupil 
should subn,it a tsTical menu for breakfast, dinner and 
supper, allowi,g for a c,«'tain nun,ber of peop]e. Consider 
the occupation, an,l ve reasons for the ehoice oï food for 
eaeh lin.al. 
Ntate how long ig shoul,l take to prepare the meal, and 
gi'e the cost. Iusi.t up,,n wu-iety in menus, an, l request 
the pupil to describe hc, w the meal s]muhl be serve& 
Sy.«'t««m, neatncss and pl'omptness should be especially 
t.mphasized. Clean tble linon--no matter how coarse-- 
is p,)ssible for every on. A dish of fruit or flowers, if 
only a bunch of -een foliage, improres the appearance 
«»f the table. 
During the scho(»l course a special lesson shoul, l be 
devoted to setting the table and sewing meals, with and 
without a waitress, so as fo gdve a knowledge of how a 
meal should be served, no matter w]mt the pupil's posi- 
tion in lire may be or what part she may bave to perform. 
A FEw GENEI/AL HINTS ON SETTING THE T.BLE. 
Although every housekeeper has her own method for 
serving meals, a few general principles gov,îru all properly 
regulated service. When setting the table, cover first 
with a cs.nton-itannel or f_-lt c]oth, in or, h:r to prevent 
noise and protcct the table. Place each article in its pro- 
per place an,l n,t in a confused "jmnble." Sec that the 
tableclot]l is spread smoothly, that the corners are of 
equal length, that the crea--if the cloth bas been folded 
instead of rolledis exuctly in the centre. Place the 
fruit or ltowers in thc centre of thc rai)le. 



PLANNING AND SERVING ][EALS. 171 

For each person place knife, spoon an,1 glass on the 
right, fork and napkin on the left. Place the glass at the 
point of the knife. Turn (he e,lge of the knife towards 
the plate and the fok tines up, the spoon with the 
bowl up. If soup is fo be served, place a S«luare of bread 
or a roll on t,,p of the napkin or b,4ween the folds. Place 
the pepper and sait at the corners of thc table, unless 
indivi,hml salts are used, when thcy should be place,1 at 
the hem of the plates, where the dcss«.rt spoon nmy be 
plaeed--the handle towards the right--for eonvenienee. 
The general rule in serving simple family meMs, with 
or without a waitress, is for the hosh:ss to serve the I»r- 
ridge and coffee at breakfast ; the soup, salad and dessert 
at dinner, and pour the tea at the evcning meal. When 
luneheon is served in the middle of the day the hostess 
usually does the greater part of the s,.rving, as hmeheon 
is e, msidered to be the m»st informal meal of the day. 

,. FEw HINTS FoR WAITRESNES. 

Learn to move quickly an,l quietly. Ee scrupulously 
elean and nea.t in every detail of dress and habit. Before 
serving a meal sec that hands and finger nails are elean. 
Always have a fresh white apron ready to put on bote,re 
the meal is announeed. Look over the table and sec that 
everything is in ifs place b,fore announeing a meal. Fill 
the glasses with water either before the family enter the 
dining room or immediately after they are seated. Lift 
the eovers from hot dishcs and turn them over at once in 
order to prcvent the sh,am fron dropping on the eloth. 
Take the plate from the host or hostess, and place before 
eaeh person from the right side--keep the thumb well 



:1 '2 DOMESTIC SCIER'CE. 
under the plate. Wben psing anything from whlcla 
the pers«ms seated at table bclp themselves, such as 
vegetables, sauces, etc., always go to the left, so as to 
leave the right hand of the one fo be served free. Keep 
a watchful eye over the table and pass anything appar- 
ently required. 
Learn fo receive insLructions from the hosLess in an 
und,rtone. Do hot get excited and try fo do too man)- 
things at once. It is an accomplishment to be a good 
waitress, ms iç requires special refinement and deftness, 
which are scarcely compatible vith an untidy nature. 
\Vhen serviug meals without a waitress, the daughters 
of tbe house shou]d consider it their special privilege fo 
save the mother any annoyance or discomfort during the 
meal rime. /Vevcr allow dishes, which bave been used, 
fo accumulate on the table or allow the table to become 
,lisordere& As nmch of the food as possible should be 
placed on the table before the family are seated, and the 
plates or dishes r«moved at once after using. /Vo rnatter 
how simple the meal may be, every housekeeper should 
see that if is served neatly and on rime. Teachers may 
exercise a far-reaching influence in the refininff of home 
lire by impressing upon çhe pupils the importance of 
thesetoo often consideredminor matters, and by 
giving minute instructions in the setting of table and 
serving the meal. One carefully planned lrractice lesson 
will convey more knowledge of such matters çhan any 
number of lectures or pages of theory. 



CONSIDERATION OF bIENUS. 173 

CONSIDERATION OF MENUS. 
The following menus and analyses are taken from 
bulletin No. 74, prelr»red in the United States Experi- 
ment Stations, and are inserted so as to give some idea 
of the cost and relative value of various foods in com- 
bination. If mst be q'emembered tlat the prices givo 
are n excess o.f îg,rices 
mene would be l«ss tl«n is gicen 
The more expensive m.nus bave bcen omitted. The 
writer of the article says 
"Ir planning a well balanced dict the following points 
must be considered 
(1) The use of any considerable amount of fat meat or 
starchy food should be oftet by the use of soine material 
rich in protein. Thus, if roast pork is to be eaten for 
dinner, veal, fish, or lean bêcf mighb well be eaten for 
breakfa.st or supper, or both. ]ean soup furnishcs a con- 
siderable amount of protein, while bouillon, consommé, 
and tomato soup are practically useless as a source of 
nutriment. Skim milk also furnishes I, rotein, with but 
vcry little accompanying fats and carbohydrates to 
increase the fuel value. 
(2) The use of lean meats or fish for all three meals 
would require the use of such foods as rice, tapioca, or 
cornstarch pudding, considerable quantities of sugar and 
butter, and more vegetables, in order fo furnish suflïcient 
fuel value. 
(3) Since flour, sugar, and butter or lard enter very 
largely into pastries and desserts, the larger the quan- 



174 DOIESTIC SCIENCE. 

tities of these dishes that are consumed the larger does 
the fuel value tend fo become as compared with the 
protein. 
The principal classes of food ,na.terials nmy be roughly 
grouped as follows as regards the proportion ,,f protein 
fo fuel value, beginning with those which bave the 
|argest proportion of protein and ending with those 
which contain little or no protein :-- 
Foods contining u lurge 'Fish ; veal ; lean beef, auch as ahank, 
unoun$ of protein asJ ahoulder, canned corned, round, neck, 
compared with the fuel  and chuck ; akim milk. 
value. . 
/Fowl ; eggs ; mutton leg and houlder ; beef, 
| ftter cuts, such as rib, loin, rump, flank, 
Foods containing . me-.f and brisket ; vhole rnilk ; beans uncl peas ; 
diumumountofprotein.| mutton chuck and l,in; cheese; lean 
pork ; oatmeal and other breakfast foods ; 
flour ; bread, etc. 
Foods containing little orfVeg etables nd fruit ; fat pork ; rice ; tpi- 
no protein.  oca ; starch ; butter and other rats and 
t. oils ; sugar, ayrups. 

THE IENVS. 

To illustrate the ways in which milk nmy be combined 
with other food materials, to form daily dietaries with 
about the amount of pr«_,tein and the fuel value called 
for }»3" the standard for men af moderate muscular work, 
a few menus are/dven in the following pages. These 
laenus are intended to show hov approximatcly the saine 
nutritive value may be obtained by food combinations 
,liff,ring widely as regards the number, kind, and price of 
the food materials used to make n I) three daily meals. 
They also illustrate how the cost of the daily menu may 



CONSIDERATION (»F MENUS. 175 

vary greatly with the kind and variety of materials pur- 
chased, though the nutritive value remains the saine. 
These sample menus should hot, however, be regarded as 
in any sense "models" fo be followed in actual practice. 
The daily menus for any fami[y will necessarily wtry 
with 15he markeç supply, the season, and the rela15ive 
expensiveness of different food materials, as well as with 
the tastes and purse of the consumer.s. The l»oint to 
which we wish here t5o draw especial attention is that the 
prudent5 buyer of foods for fami]y consumption can 
afford t5o wholly neglec15 their nutritive value in making 
such purchases. 
With reference fo the following daily menus, several 
points must be definitely bonae in mind. (1) The 
amounts ffiven represen15 about5 what would be called 
for in a family equivalent fo four full-gTown men af 
ordinary manual labor, such as machinists, carpcnters, 
mill-workers, farmers, truckmen, etc., according fo the 
usually acceptd standards. Sedentary peop]e wou]d 
require somewhat h.ss than the amounts hcre given. (2) 
Children as a rule nay be considered as having "" moder- 
are nauscular exercise," and if may easily bc undcrstood 
that the 14-year-old boy eats as much as his f;rthcr who 
is engaged in business or professional occupation, both 
requiring, according t5o 15he ten15ative standard, 0.8 of the 
food needed by a man with moderate lnUscular work. 
(3) I15 is hOt assumed tha15 any housewife will find it con- 
renient5 fo follow exactly the proportions suggested in 
15he menus. The purpose is to shoxv her about what 
amotmts and proportions of food materials would give 
15he required nutrients. 
A family equivalent to four lnell having iittl muscu- 



176 DOMESTIC ,SCIENCE. 

lar exercise--i.e.,-men with sedentary occupation--would 
require but about 0.8 the quantities indicated in the fol- 
lowing menus. If wou]d be very doubtftfl, however, if 
they would eat proportionally less of every food material. 
If would, in fact, be more probable thaç the amounts of 
ment, fish, e«s,,., potatoes, and bread eaten would be 
re,]uced in a much greater proportion than fruit, pastry, 
cofthe, etc. 
PECUNIARY EOE».O" oF hLK AND OTHER FOODS. 
.4mounts of octual nutrients obtained in different food moterials for 10 cts. 

Food Materlal. Lbs. OZ. 
Vhole Milk, 10 cts. per qt.  0 
.... 8 ,, 2 8 
.... 7 ,,  14 
.... 6 ,, 3 5 
.... 5 ,, 4 0 
.... 4 ,, 5 0 
Skim ,, 3 ,, 6 11 
o 10 0 
Butter, 24 cts. I,er lb ...... 0 7 
Cheese, 16 ........ 0 lO 

.Food Materal. Lbs. Oz. 
Beef, round, 12 ets. per lb. 0 13 
. sirloin, 18 . 0 9 
Mutf, on, loin, 16 
Pork, salt 12 . . 0 13 
Cod, salt 6 ,, . 1 9 
Egg«, 22 ets. per doz ..... 0 11 
Oysers, 30 ets. per qt ..... 0 1 
Pottoes, 60 ets. per bushel l0 0 
Beans, dried, 8 ets. per qt.. 2 8 
Vheat flour. 3 cts. _ver lb.. 3 5 

Mesç I.--Fr f«mil!l «q,dcalent to $ ntn at nodete mu.8cular 
Foc! materials. Weight. Çost. 

Br eakJat." 
Banana, 4 (or trapes, 1 pound .......... 
Breakfast cereaI .......................... 
Milk .................................... 
Sugar ................................. 
Veal cutlets ............................. 
Potatoes .............................. 
16ut ter .................................. :' 
tto||s ................................. 
Coffee ................................. 

Lbs. Oz. 
1 4 
4 
8 
1 0 

Total ....................................... 
Dinner. 
Pe soup : 
Split pea ............................ 8 
Butter .............................. 
1 
Flour .............................. 1 
oast beef. chuck rib ................... 1 
Potutoe ................................ 
Turnips ............................... 

Cents. 
3 
2O 
4 

Protein. Fuel. 
VMue. 
Pounds. Codoriu. 
0.009 362 
.03t 421 
.0t6 162 
....... 175 
.2O0 775 
.018 325 
.O7 1,148 
.010 410 
f36ï 4,431 
.275 1,260 
.022 406 



CONSIDERATION OF MENUS. 177 

MENV I.--Cnfinue«L 

Dinner--Con. Lbs. Oz. 
Cottage pudding with lemon sauce : 
1 cup flour .......................... 4 
Sugar ............................... 3 
Butter ............................... 1t 
1 cup milk ..................... 8 
Sugar ............................... 4 
Cornstarch... 
Butter ............................... 
Coffee ................ 
Total. 
upper. 
ilk toast : 
Milk ................................ 
Bread .............................. 1 2 
Butter. ............................. 4 
Cornstarch ......................... 2 
Canned salmon ......................... 8 
Fted potatoes : 
Potatoes .................. 8 
Lard ............................... _ 
Çake .................................. 6 
CoIIee or tea ............................ 
Tota[ ....... 
Totl for day .... 
Total for one Man ................. 

410 
350 
325 
162 
465 
172 
108 
410 

4,766 
]4,472 

Food nterls. Weight. ]. Cost. [ Protein. 
Breakfast. Lbs. Oz. ,[ Cents. [ PouncLs. 
Oatmsal 0 
ti ================================== 
ugar ................................... I-t/ 1( ........ 
Fresh pork eausage ..................... 1 8 [ 18  .192 
Potatoes ................................ 12 [ 1 [ .013 
Bread .................................. 12 ] 3 [ •071 
Butter ................................ 2 [ 4 I .......... 
..,,::L= ................ 
Turnips ................................. , 8 1 ] .005 
Breaxl ................................... 8 2  .048 
Butter ................................... I 1 
lndian pudding : I 
Corm«a ...........................  ' I ( .o 
Molae ............................. 4 ,f 6 IJ .007 
Butter ............................... 
Skim milk ........................... : 0 ) | I. .068 
Coffee ........................................... [ 3][ .010 

Value. 

Calories. 
3,255 
244 
90 
410 

5,776 
1,900 
487 
6O3 
217 
414 
309 
108 
30 
10 

4,875 



178 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

Mgv II.Continued. 

Supper. Lbs. Oz. 
Corned bee! hah : 
Corned beef, canned ................. 
Pottoe ........................... 
Bread .................................. 
Butter ................................. 
Tt,l ............................. 
ta!  d'y ...................... ,.......... 

CentS• Pound«. 
• 142 
.OŒEE1 
î ..... : 

Calons. 
162 
434 
191 
725 

2,976 

13,627 

21 I .285 3.407 

Ira these nenus the amount of milk has, as a rule, been 
taken as representing somewhere near tire average con- 
sumption. The amount of milk can be increaed in any 
of the menus given above either by substituting if to 
some extent for coffee or tea, or by using more milk and 
smaller quantifies of meats, butter or eggs. Rough]y 
speaking, 1 quart of whole milk could be substituted for 
half e pound of meat or eggs and the amount of nutrients 
woul,l be the saine, while a pint of milk would give as 
large a fuel value as 1½ ounees of butter, and in addi- 
tion considerable protein hot furnished by the latter. 
This replacement of meats by milk is illustrated in the 
following menu, in which  diet with a rather small 
quantity of milk is so changed as fo include a much larger 
amount. Thus for breakfast în the modified ration a plut 
and a half of milk is mude to take the place of half a 
pound of broiled steak. For dinner  quart of skim milk 
(or buttermilk)is oel]ed for, or a glss for each person 
unless some of it is used in the cooking. At the saine 
rime, 4 ounces less toast pork is required. In the saine 
way a glass of whole milk is allowed each person for 
supper, or the bread e_n be marie into milk toast and the 
most of the extrn milk used in this way. This allows the 
canned sMmon fo be reduced 6 ounces. 



CONSIDERATION OF MENUS. ]70 
III.--Forfamily equivalent o $ men a moderate exercise. 

CosL protein, roui fuel vnle of the above. 

Cost. 

With nall amount of milk. Cents. 
Breakfa8t 
Dinner .......................................... 54ïl 
8upper or lunch ................................... 
otai per da)' ............................... 
otal for one man ............................. 
With large am¢mnt of milk. I-- -- 
Breakfast .......................................... I 43 
Dinner ............................................ 
Supper or lunch .................................... [ 34 
Total per da)' ................................ I 125' 
Total for one man ............................ ['------3ï-- 

Protein. 
Poundt. 
O. 39 
.39 
.34 

Fuel 
Value. 

Calories. 
5,300 
5,800 
3,200 
14,300 
3,575 
5,270 
5,400 
3,800 
14,270 
8,567 

Menus VI and VII, following, are intended fo illustrate 
how nourishing food can be procured in sufficient quan- 
tifies and moderate variety af a cost of hOt over 16 cents 
per day. The cost to Lhe farmer would be much less, 
since these menus call for considerable amounts of milk, 



180 DOIIESTIC SCIENCE. 

which is hardly worth more than one-half or one-third 
as much on the ïarm as it costs in the towns and cities. 
Coffee has hot always been indicated, but can be intro- 
duced for any meal ai a cost of from ½ fo 1½ cents per 
cup, according fo how much coffee is used in making the 
infusion, and how much sugar, milk, and cream are added. 
Itis, of course, not importnt that eemh meal, or the 
total food of each indivi,lual day, should have just the 
right amount of nutrients, or that the proportions of 
protein and fuel ingredients should be exactly correct so 
as fo make the meal or day's diet well balanceoE The 
body is continually storing nutritive materials and using 
them. If is not dependent any day upon the food eaten 
that purticular dny. Hence an excess one day may be 
ruade up by a deficiency the next or vice ver'sa. Healthful 
nourishment requires simply that the nutrients as a 
whole, during longer or shorter periods, should be fitted 
to the actual needs of the body for use. 

.IENV IV.--For fimily equiralent fo  men ai moderate muscularwork. 

Food nmterials. 

Breakfast. 
Bananas, 4 (or grapes, 1 pound) .......... 
Breaklast cere.l ......................... 
b|ilk .................................. 
Sugar ................................... 
Mutton chops ........................... 
Potatoes ............................... ' 

Weight. 

Lbs. Oz. 
1 4 
1  
1 o 

Butter ................................... 
Rolls .................................... 
Conee ................................. 
otl ............................. 
Dinner. 
TomatO wup .......................... 
Rost pork ............................ 
Potatoes .............................. 
"rurnil ................................ 

Cost. 
Cents. 

Protein. 

Pound. 
0.009 
( .031 
3 .012 
20 .165 
].] .o8 
4 .077 
3} .010 
1 

Fuel 
Value. 

Calories. 
231 
1,81I 
1,14 

6,45 

270 



CONSIDERATION OF MENUS. 181 

MNV I V.--Continucd. 

DinnerlCOn. 
Tapioca pudding : 
Tapioca ............................ 
Apples .............................. 
Sugar .................................. 
Cream .................................. 
Cotlee ................................. 

8utrper. 
Milk toast : 
3filk ................................ 2 0 
Bread .............................. 1 
Butter .............................. 4 
Crnstarch ......................... 
Slieed cold pork ......................... 8 
Fried potatoes : 
Potatoes ............................ 8 
Lard ................................ I ] I  
Cake ................................... I « I 
total o, o.e m ................ , ........... 
I 
I 

1o 
255 
232 
228 
410 

65O 
1,35 
89 
228 
670 
162 
132 
619 
410 

5,096 
16,209 

4,052 
V.--FoT" famil!! equirŒElent fo  men t rrmdrate mucular work. 
Fud 
Food materials. Value. 

Ereakfast. 
Baked apples ............................ 
Boiled hominy ........... 
Mi|k. .................................... 
Sugar ................................... 
Broiled sirloin 
Potatoes ............................... 
Muffins : 
1 egg ............................. 
2 cupa flour .......................... 
Butter ................................... 
Collee ................................... 

Weight. 
Lbs. Oz. 
2 0 
8 
10 
3 
10 
8 
4 
8 
2 

Total .............................. 
Dinner. 
Tomato oup ............................ 2 0 
Veal stew, shoulder ...................... 2 0 
Potatoes .............................. 3 0 
Apple dumpling: 
1 egg ................................ 2 
4 apples ............................ 1 
 eup lsrd 
1 cup flour .......................... 4 

Cost. Protein. 
Cets. Pou»ds. 
I 
2 0.008 
,. -'. .o2o 
11 .099 
1  
I .oze 
} 5 I 
4 .......... 
3 .OlO 
31 .276 
 ---2- 

Calories. 
510 
823 
2O2 
35O 
1(2 
162 
82O 

4,524 

370 
1,35O 
975 
81 
382 
1,056 
410 



]8 9 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

M.v V.--Continued. 

Dinner.--Con. I, bs. Oz. 
Sauce lot dumpling : 
IJutter. .............................. 1 
Sugar ............................... 
Bread ................................... 
Butter .................................. 1 
L'offee or tea ....................................... 
Total ...................................... 
Suploer or lunch. 
Dried canned corned beef ................ 8 
Potato croquette ....................... 8 
Biscuit .................................. 12 
Butter .................................. 
-I rnges, 4 ............................... 1 
Skira milk .............................. 1 
Total ....................................... 
Total lot da.v ...................... 
Total for one man ................. 

Cents. 

• 071 
.010 

Calories. 

50 .553 
 .142 
1 .009 
4 .070 
7 .007 
2 .046 
 .274 

56( 
16": 

14.338 

3,585 
.lEu VI.--For family eluiralent to . men at moderate nuscular wor. 
F mal. ProVin. el 
Value. 

Br*akfast. 
Cornmeal, in mush or cake .............. 
blilk .................................... 
Sugar .................................. 
Butter (24 cents per pound) .............. 
Total ............................. 
Dinrter. 
Beef roll (for roasting) 
Potatoes .............................. 
Beets ................................... 
Bread .................................. 
Butter .................................. 
Total 
upper. 
Beans, baked ............................ 
Pork .............................. 
Potatoes, fried. 
Lard ............................. 
Bread ........................ " .... 
Butter ......... 
Total .......................... 
Total per day ...... 
Total for one man.. 

Dounds. Calories. 
0.oe2 414 
.012 64 
232 
.059 753 
.09 1o87 

.417 2,280 
.026 488 
.07 85 
.059 753 
424 
.509 4,040 

.446 3,180 
.012 2,556 
.026 488 
• .059 753 
.3 I 7,9.$ 
1.14 I 13,885 
.26 I 3,471 



CONSIDERATION OF MENUS. :13 
MZ VII.For famæly equivale $o , rnen at moderate muecular work. 

Food materials. 

Breakfast. 
Oatmel ................................ 
Skim milk, 1 piot ........................ 
Sugar ......... • ......................... 
Bread 0aomemade) ...................... 
Sausage ................................. 
Butter (24 cents per imund) .............. 
Total .............................. 
Dinner. 
Bee! flank, stew ........................ 
Potatoes (60 cents per bushel) ............ 
Cabbage ................................. 
CornmeM pudding : 
Commeal ............................ 
Skim milk, 1 quart ................... 
Holasses. ............................ 
Total .............................. 
Supper. 
Beef, warmed in gravy ................... 
Hot biscuit .............................. 
Butter .................................. 
lilk, 1 quart ........................... 
Total .............................. 
Total per dy ..................... 
Total for one man .... 

Weight. Cost. 
Lbs. Oz. Cents. 
o 6 îl 
1 
ï 

I Fuel 
Protein. Value. 

Pounds. Calories. 
0 059 697 
• 034 17o 
-23"2 
.oo 
.......... I 217 

.26 3,879 
.430 2,98 
.054 975 
.013 105 
.02 ° - 414 
.«.8 340 
• 020 
.  98 
.34) 
.259 3.957 
.5 3.411 

DISCUSSION OF THE 
These menus attempt to give, as nearly as convenient, 
the range-of food materials and the variety of combina- 
tion which might be round in the verage well-to-do 
household. Some of the menus re more varied and 
costly than others, ncl a few are ven showing the 
effect of the use of more milk, and also how  diet might 
easily become one-side& The quantities of the different 
foods used per mel will hot, if is believed, be round out 
of proportion to each other, though of course they will 
hot suit every family. The weights of ail materials, 



184 DOIESTIC 

meal and other cereals, ment, vegetables, etc., are for 
these substances a.s purchased. 
The calculation of the quaTtities of nutrients con- 
tained in the different foo, ls is based upon the average 
percentage composition of these materials. Inasmuch as 
the rats and carbohydrates are used simply a fuel they 
are hot shown in the menus, only the quantity of protein 
and the fuel value of the food being of interest. 
The cost of the different food materials must of neces- 
sity be more or less of a varying quantity, depending 
upon the season of the year, the character of the markets, 
large or small, city or country, etc. Of the more import- 
ant food mtterials the assumed priee per pound is as 
follows: Beef loin, 1 fo 25 cents; shoulder, 12 cents; 
round, 14 cents; chicken, 15 cents; mutton loin, 16 
cents; lamb leg, 9-0 cents; bacon, 16 cents; sausage, 10 
cents; milk, 3 cents (6 cents per quart); skim milk, l- 
cents (3 cents per quart); butter, 32 cents; cheese, 16 
cents; eggs, 16 cents (24 cents per dozen); flour and 
meal, 2 fo 3 cents ; cereals, 5 fo 8 cents ; bread, 4 cents; 
potatoes and other vegetables, 1½ cent (90 cents per 
bushel); bananas, abouç 8 cents (20 cents per dozen); 
oranges, about 7 cents (25 fo 40 cents per dozen) ; apples, 
1½ cent per pound (90 cents per bushel). 
It is probable that the above figures represent more 
nearly the average prices of the different food materiaLs 
in the e,steru part of the country than in the central 
and western portions, where meats, cereals, and many 
other products are somewhat cheaper. It is also fo be 
borne in mind that by observing the markets many food 
materials can be pu_rchased much cheaper than here 



CONSIDERATION OF ]IENUS. 185 

indicated, while on the other hand there may be rimes 
when they will be much more expensive. The choice of 
vegetables and fruits will naturally be governed by their 
abundance and cost. 

- Another point that must hOt be overlooked is that the 
quantities, and consequently the costs, here given are for 
four working men; thaç is fo say, men engaged in 
moderately hard muscular labor. Of course, different 
individuals diflr greatly in their needs for food. These 
figures express only general averages and are based upon. 
the besç information accessible. 

A FEW POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN PLANNING I[Eh_LS. 
Dietetic authorities advise people who are engaged in 
oetive muscular vork to partake of the more substantial 
meal in the middle of the day, leaving such articles of 
food as soup--which is a valuable stimulant after  day 
of hard work--fruit, cake, etc., for the evening meal, 
when the system is too much exhausted to digest the 
more concentrated fooda When men are obliged to take 
cold lunches in the middle of the day the housewife 
should see that the lunch basket contains the necessary 
nourishment in the form of cheese, cold meat, meat or 
fish sandiches, hard boiled eggs, a fish or vegetable 
salad, cold pork and beans, rice pudding, whole wheat 
bread and butter, a bottle of milk or st'ained tea or 
coffee, pie, doughnuts, etc. 
Remember, a man working in the open air or in a large 
building requires food which will hot oxidize too quickly, 
or in other words, food which will keep up the fuel and 
force necessary for his work. Supper in such cases 



]8 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

should consist of a good broth or well malle souv, and 
the lighter foods;but breakfasç and dinner should be 
more substantial. If is a question of economy fo provide 
suitable food for the wage-earner. The children may be 
equally well nourished on a less experLsive diet, such as 
whole wheat bread and butter, milk puddings, fruit, 
green vegetables, cerels, milk, and meat once a day. 
On the other hand the individual engaged in sedentary 
employment, such as book-keepîng, teahing, needlework, 
etc., should dine later in the day, as if leaves a longer 
interval for digestion, which is much slower when the 
individual is confined in a close office or work-room, and 
where little exercise is taken.* Care should be taken in 
planning meals for this class to avoid food which requires 
much oxygen, such as fresh pork, fried food, sausage, 
warm bread, pastry, griddle cakes, etc. The mid-day 
meal of a brain worker or business man should be light; 
a s,up, glass of milk (hot or cold), fruit, bread and butter, 
vegetable salad, a broiled chop or steak, etc., are suitable 
for luncheon. 
Special attention should be given to the diet of school 
childre (ee p. 153.) 
Students and children who are obliged fo study st 
night should, as a rule, take some light nourishment be- 
fore retiring ;  biscuit, a piece of bread and butter, or  
glass of hot milk, is sufficient. 
Young grls, who are employed in shops, factories, etc., 
frequently hurry away to their work in the morning 

• The teacher m,y make this clear by compuring the digestion of the 
two classes fo the action of the air upon coal in a range with the drafts 
open and clo$ed, the more rapid combustion, effect of oxygen, etc. 



CONSIDERATION OF IIENUS. 187 

without taking a substantiaI breakfast. It is needless fo 
say that such action is sure fo be followed by a physical 
breakdown. A glass of bob milk or an egg beaten and 
added fo a glass of milk will serve as an occasional sub- 
stitute for a more substantial nleal, but is n«»t enough to 
sustain active exercise for any length of rime. 
Another point fo consider in the planning of meals 
is economy of fuel. The thoughtful housekeeper will 
arrange fo bave food requiring long, slow cooking, such 
as stews, soup stock, bread, etc., and ironing done by the 
same fuel Broiling, toasting, omelets, etc., require a 
¢luick tire. If is in the careful consideration of details 
that economy in both food and fuel may be exercised. 



]88 DObIESTIC SCIENCE. 

SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS. 
In giving instruction in Domestic Science, the teacher 
must be careful to explain the meaning of any words 
used which the pupils would not be likely to understand ; 
for instance, oxidation, combustion, solubility, etc., and 
many of the terres used in the analysis, such as fermenta- 
tion, casein of milk, albumen, cellulose, etc. :In order fo 
keeœe the attention of Pul»ils fixed on a subject, frequent 
illustrations and comparisons should be ruade. 
Questioning is one of the best methods of riveting 
attention, and as every teacher has hot the faculty of 
asking questions,  few suggestive ones are given which 
ma, y prove helpful. 
Why do we eat food ? 
XVhat is nitrogenous f«»,| ? 
\Vhut is its chief office ? 
XVhere is it ¢x be found ? 
In what section 0»f vegetable kingd,»m is this compound 
abundant ? 
\Vhat is 
Of what 
Why do 
Do they 
\Vhich are he mosç imporçan hea-giving compounds . 
'hat is the proportion in food they should bear  the 
flesh-forming compounds  
XVhat other compounds are necessary t forma perfect food ? 

the chief nitrogenous compound in meat and eggs ? 
is if composed  
we call these compounds nitrogenous ? 
serve any other purpose besides building up flesh ? 



SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS. 189 
Give their use ? 
VChere are they to be found ? 
What is common sal ? 
Where is it foun(! ? 
Why do we use it  
Give the three digestive juices. 
What kind of mineral matter do we find in vegetables  
Why should potato larings, leaves and stalks of cabbage 
not be put in the dust bin or garbage pail ? 
What should be done with them  
Which are the most important warmth-ging foods ? 
Give another naine for these foods ? 
Why are they so called ? 
Vhat is combustion  
How do these foods lroduce force, etc. ? 
V'hat other elements do these foods contain ? 
Why are rats and oils more valuable as het.givers than 
starch or sugar  
What elements unite and form water  
What is the proportion of water in the body  
Give its use  
Exœelain the difference in the digestion of starch and fat ? 
Why does starch need cooking ? 
To what kingdom does it belong ? 
Which section is of most value  
tow is starch changed into sugar ? 



190 DO}IESTIC SCIE.CE. 
SVhat changes food into blood  
Vhat gives the red celer te blood ? 
What mineral helps digestion most ? 
What is sugar ? 
'hat causes sugar te ferment  
$hat is the result ? 
Where is it te be found ? 
V'hat are food adjuncts ? 
Of vhat value are they  
Give the names of combustible nutrients. 
Give the names of incombustible nutrients. 
For a substance te undergo combustion, what must it con- 
tain  
V'hat supports combustion  
What is chemically pure water ? 
XVhat causes the hardness of water  
What is gluten ? 
What is dextrine ? 
X$here is it found  
In what way does dextrine differ frein starch  
'hat is decomposition ? 



LESSONS FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL CLASSES. 191 

SCHEDULE OF LESSONS FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL 
CLASSES. 
LE88O. 
I. Information regarding the conduct of classes. Practice in 
meastLring. Practice in ligbting gas-burners and ovcn. 
Practice in lighting and regulting a range. 
Il. Fruit--Applesauce. Codd]eà apples. Sewed prunes. 
III. Starch--Boiled rice. Potatoes, boiled and mashed. 
IV. Starch--Thickening liquids with flour. 
V. Starch--Practice in No. 4. 
VI. Vegetables--Onions, cabbage, parsnips, etc. 
V I I. Eggs--Boiled egg. Poacbed eggs. T«»ast. 
VIII. Eggs and milk--Boiled and baked custard. 
IX. Flour mixtures--Popovers, griddle cake. 
X. Flour mixtures--Milk biscuits. Corn bread. Apple 
pudding. 
XI. Bread--Making sponge, kneading, and setting t,, rise. 
XII. Bread--Moulding and baking. 
X[II. Fish--Boiled and baked fish. Creamed fish anti sauce. 
XIV. Review of theory and recipes. 
KV. Meat--loasting meat. Soup stock. 
XVI. Meat---Stewed meat. 
XVII. hIeat--Cold meat and broiling. 
XVIII. Salads. 
XIX. Beans. 
XX. Plain puddings. 
oT].--After this each teacher must arrange lessons according fo 
circumstances, age of pupils, etc., alternating cooking with lessons 
in care of kitchen and utensils, and lectures on sanitary matters, 
laundry work, setting table, and serving. 



APPENDIX. 

Outlines Nos. I and II, for clas work, are contributed by Prof. 
Kinne, of Teachers' Co/lege, Columbi University, N . Y. City. 

OI_7I'LINE I. 
The following outline is offered as a tentative plan of 
work, for n average class of girls, in the highes grades 
of the Public school. The exc ortier of lessons depends 
in a measure on the skill and interes of the pupils, and 
the special dishes selected to illustrate a l,rinciple, upon 
the circumstances of the pupils, and upon the season of 
the year. 
If should be r.oted that beginning with the third 
lesson, there are four lessons on the cooking of carbo- 
hydrates ; then four on the cooking of nitrogenous foods; 
next the batters, combining the two, and introducing the 
use of fat, and so on. Itis the purpose of this arrange- 
ment to enforce the eflbcts produced by heat on the food 
principles, singly and in combination; to alternate the 
groups, so that there is a constant rcview of principles 
already established; and to give practical work of in- 
creasing difliculty. 
The course in cooking should be preceded by a few 
lessons in house-work; and af leaqt one on the care of 
the kitchen. Itis taken for granted that the lessons are 
accompanied by a study of food values, the cost of food, 
marketing, etc. 
1. Simple experimefits in combustion--to illustrate the 
structure of stoves and the care of such stoves Study 
13 193 



19 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

of the fuel and apparatus tobe used in the school 
kitchen; practice in using the apparatus; comparison 
with other apparatus. 
2. Utensils--what they are, of what materials, and 
why. It is well to bave pupils make a list in note-book 
of simple kitchen furnishing. 
Experiments with the boiling of water, in Florence 
flask, in tea-kettle, and in covered saucepan, using ther- 
mometer. Use of double boiler. Compare with boiling 
water the temperature of fat hot enough for frying, 
and al that of the oven. To illustrate the two latter, 
croutons may be ruade. 
3. Measuring--experiment with the cooking of starch 
in water: cornstarch pudding, or tapioca or sago jelly. 
Develop the idea of the effect of the boiling temperature 
on the starch grains, the bursting of the grains, and the 
change in flavor due to continued cooking. 
4. A cereal and a fruit,--say, baked apples. In the 
ceral, in addition to the starch, is the cooking of the 
woody fibre. Note in both cereal and fruit the flavors 
dcveloped by heat, the cooking being  continuation, as 
it were, of the rpening process. 
5. A starchy and a green vegetab!e; as, for instance, 
potatoes and cabbage. Here, again, are the two prin- 
ciples, cookery of starch and vegetable fibre; again the 
dvelopment of flavor by heat. Cookery of peas and 
beans would botter be deferred until the pupils are 
familiar with the effect of water on nitrogenous sub- 
stances. 
If time allows, a sauce may be ruade to serve with a 
vegetable, or this may be given in the next lesson- 



195 

6. Vegetable soups, without meat stock. This is in 
I)art a reviev lesson. Oi)i)ortunity is offered here for the 
study of proportions, several ingredients bcing used, how 
much vegetable pull) or juice fo how much liquid; how 
much thickening, and how much salt fo a quart of soui). 
7. Eggs. Experiments fo show the coagulating point 
of the white and yolk, followed by soft and hard cooking 
of eggs, and possibly  plain omelet. 
8. Eg and milk. 
9. Oysters. 
10. Fish. 
ll, 12, 13. Batters. In these three lessons study 
especially proportions, methods of mixing and baking. 
A good sequence of batters is the following: popovers, 
griddle cakes, muffins, and baking powder biscuit; or a 
sweet batter in the form of a plain cake may be given 

for sake of variety. 
14. Tender meat. 
15. Tender meat. 
18. Tough meat. 
19. Tough meat. 

1)an broiling and broiling. 
Roasting and making of gravy. 
Soui)s and stews. 
Soups and stews. 

Made dishes of meat can be given in these two lessons 

20. Beverages. 
21. Salads. 
22. Desserts. 
23. A breakfast. 
24. A luncheon. 
25. A dinner; or, ctinner and sut)per. 



196 DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 
Other topics, in addition to these, or in plce of some 
of them; bacon, and trying out of fat; cheese dishes: 
canning and preservng; dishes for invalids; other 
desserts and ruade dishes. 
Ç.)UTLI NE II. 
This outline has been found proetical in a shor course 
where it wa advisable fo dve the pupils work in the 
preparation of simple mls. The plan can be followed 
in a longer course. 
I t rod'uctorg L,so " Fire-»tk i ng, Measu,'ing, etc. 
1. A cereal and fruit. 
2. Eggs. 
3. Bacon, and the trying out of fat. 
4. Plain muffins, or griddle ckes. Coffee. 
5. A breakïast. 
6. Vegetables. Vegetable soup. 
7. A ruade dish of meat or fish. 
8. Salad and dressing. 
9. Muffins or biscuit. 
10. A luncheon or supper. 
11. Vegetables. Mazroni. 
12. Meat. 
13. Sauces and gravies. A desert. 
14. Breoe or rolls. 
15. A dinner. 



Jalstr ©1 Educatin, Ontaro 
Historical CcI!ection